The Cardiovascular System: Blood

Presented By: Dr. Jennifer Smith-Herter

Over All Blood Characteristics

  • Blood Amount: Female: 4-5 liters, Male: 5-6 liters
  • Components of Blood: 55% Plasma, 45% Erythrocytes, >1% Leukocytes, >1% Platelets
  • All blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow
  • Erythropeoitin: Increases production of Red Blood cells
  • Lymphokinin: Increases production of White Blood cells
  • Thrombopeoitin: Increases production of Platelet cells
  • Production is stimulated by Oxygen and regulated by the kidneys

Plasma

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White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)

  • Protect body against infectious disease and foreign invaders
  • Found in blood and lymphatic system
  • Five Types:
  1. Lymphocyte: 2nd most abundant, produce antibodies, enable phagocytes to consume clusters of germs
  2. Monocyte: 5%-8%, largest white blood cell, act against multiplication of germs
  3. Eosinophil: 2%-5%, act against parasites (known to be cause of allergic reactions)
  4. Basophil: Least common, secrete antibodies and anticoagulants (limits hypersensitive reactions in the blood), immediate immune reaction against foreign invaders
  5. Neutrophil: 55%-75% abundance, C-shaped segmented nucleus, tend to stick to walls to prevent germs from entering through an infected wound
  • Leukopenia: reduction of number of white blood cells in the blood
  • Leukemia: bone-marrow produces an excess amount of abnormal white blood cells which leads to anemia
  • Mononucleosis: abnormally high proportion of Monocytes in the blood
  • Multiple Myeloma: blood cancer that develops in the blood, specifically cancer of Plasma cells
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Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)

Function and Hemoglobin:

  • carry oxygen to all the body tissues and to carry waste back to the lungs to exit the body
  • Hemoglobin: Iron-containing protein, forms unstable, reversible bond with oxygen
  • Hemoglobin Test: measures amount of hemoglobin in blood, may be used to screen conditions that affect red blood cells

Anemia:

  • condition of red blood cells and hemoglobin as a deficiency in the blood, resulting in weariness
  • Iron Deficienncy: too few healthy blood cells due to too little iron in the body, medically treatable= Ferrlecit
  • Hemolytic: red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the blood stream before their normal life span is over. Medically treated
  • Hemorrhagic: reduced delivery of oxygen to tissues, treated with blood transfusions
  • Sickle Cell: group of disorders that cause red blood cells to become misshapen and broken down, Pain reliever, medication by mouth
  • Pernicious: decrease in red blood cells when the body cannot absorb enough vitamin B-12, medically treated

Polycythemia:

  • abnormally increased concentration of hemoglobin in blood
  • primary disease of unknown cause, secondary condition linked to respiratory or circulatory disorder, or cancer
  • there is no cure, though precautions may be taken to prevent further damage of the disease

Thrombocytes (Platelets)

Hemostasis:

  • the stoppage of bleeding or hemorrhage
  • Medically treated

Coumadin (Warfarin): helps to prevent new blood clots from forming

Heparin: prevents clots in the blood vessels before or after surgery

Aspirin: treats pain, fever, arthritis and inflammation. Also helps prevent heart attacks