Mr. D'Ambrosio's Living Environment
Let's review for the midterm!
Scientific Method and Laboratory Equipment
- Know the difference between the independent and dependent variables. Remember that the independent variable is what you control and the dependent variable is what you observe or measure.
- How and why would you treat the experimental group differently then the control group?
- What makes an experiment valid or accepted?
- How do you measure the volume of a liquid using a graduated cylinder? Bottom of the meniscus
- Total magnification of a compound light microscope is the power of the ocular multiplied by the power of the objective.
- When preparing a wet mount slide you put the specimen on the slide with water. You roll the cover slip onto the specimen to eliminate air bubbles.
- If you want to add stain to a slide or saltwater without removing the cover slip you add the stain on one side of the cover slip and place a paper towel on the other side so the paper towel will "pull" the stain through.
- Diaphragm controls the amount of light passing through the specimen.
- Remember that 1cm=10mm and 1mm = 1,000 microns (um)
- Indicators are used to tell us if something is present... for example Lugol's iodine turns from the color of amber to dark purple or black in the presence of starch. Benedict's reagent turns from a blue color to brick red when heated and in the presence of sugar.
- Homeostasis: constant internal environment. (Dynamic Equilibrium)
- Metabolism: all chemical activities that occur.
- Organelles: Structures inside the cell that help maintain homeostasis by performing various functions. Often compared to organs in multi-cellular organisms.
- Know the what the organelles look like and what they do... Nucleus, Ribosomes and protein synthesis, Mitochondria - ATP, cell membrane, cytoplasm, chloroplast.
- Know the steps of mitosis and how you get from one parent cell to two daughter cells.
- Mitosis is not only used as form of asexual reproduction but is necessary for growth and regeneration.
- How is mitosis different in plant and animal cells.
- Know the picture of mitosis and how to place them in order.
- A chromosome is made of two chromatids held together by a centromere.
- Uncontrolled cell division = cancer
- How do you identify animal and plant cells?
- Why is the cell membrane said to be selectively permeable? How do things pass through the cell membrane? Active transport, passive transport (diffusion and osmosis) ... What limits things from entering a cell? (Size)
- Know the parts of the cell theory and the exceptions.
- video 2
- What is the difference between inorganic and organic molecules?
- What are hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions and how do they effect cells?
- Know the building blocks of proteins and examples...muscle, hormones, enzymes, etc.
- Know how to identify dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.
- Enzymes are organic catalysts which means they speed up chemical reactions.
- Enzymes are specific to one substrate and their active sites denature when there is a change in pH and or temperature.
- Know the difference between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
- Know how to identify the molecular structures of glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and glycerol,
- Enzyme lab denaturation
- Enzyme Video
- Know how to identify the different organs and their functions.
- Where are red blood cells made, how do you identify red blood cells, they lack a nucleus, have hemoglobin and carry oxygen and Carbon dioxide.
- Know the difference between capillaries, arteries and veins.
- Know how to identify red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
- Necessary for bringing oxygen into our bodies so cells can create energy by the process of Aerobic Respiration.
- Glucose and oxygen are required for aerobic respiration and carbon dioxide, ATP and water are produced
- What is the role of the kidney?
- Know the diagram of the nephron and be able to identify the parts and functions.
- Difference between and examples of striated and visceral muscle
- Be able to identify the different joints
- Know the pathway of an impulse through a reflex arc from a receptor to an effector.
- Know the anatomy of the heart and the flow of blood.
- Know the diagram of the brain and be able to identify the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata as well as their functions.
- Know how an impulse gets across a synapse using the neurotransmitter.