Science, Revolution, Witches.. crap

The world will never be the same.

Science and Philosophy

With the arising of new findings in science, philosophers aimed to prove their discoveries by using religion. Many philosophers used mechanical metaphors that placed God as the mechanic or clock-worker. Along with these metaphors, others tried to justify these scientific discoveries in their own ways. Rene Descartes, for example, decided that God existed and humans just couldn’t fully comprehend the world, while he didn’t trust anything else he couldn’t put a clear distinction on as he emphasized deduction. Along with Descartes was Francis Bacon who emphasized finding new things and paved the way for higher intellectual thinking. Then there’s John Locke, a man who is considered to be the best philosopher of that time. He believed that humans have a basic nature of goodwill and will work together to ensure natural given rights of liberty, property, and religious freedom and that the government is responsible for the concerns. This led to his failed attempt at overthrowing Charles II which is why he’s a philosopher, not a doer. Comparable to him is Thomas Hobbes, a philosopher who also criticized government. He advocated for absolutism and believed humans to be naturally selfish, but willing to give it up for a ruler who will protect them. Between the two, Locke is much better as his views are much more in favor of the People and their unalienable rights, similar to the U.S. These philosophers are just a few of many who helped pushed science forward in society.

Science and Religion

During the Scientific Revolution the Catholic Church became choosy in what they accepted and did not accept. The church did accept Copernicus's view about a heliocentric model of the universe and even commissioned his book, "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres"(1543). But that's where most of the acceptance stopped. The Catholic Church was very against Galileo's work as he tried to advise the Papacy on how to infer Scripture and banned Copernicus's book. As a result he was condemned by the church. Along with clashing with scientists, the Catholic Church also continued to conflict with the Protestants, wanting a more literal translation of the Bible after the Council of Trent. Aside from this, most scientists were able to complete their work without much religious issue or interference. Including Blaise Pascal, a french mathematician who reconciled science with faith in a very different way. He believed that a loving God exists and that people are just corrupted by nature and unworthy of him. Overall, the most wide-spread approach was the English Approach which stated that God gave humans science so that they could understand the world and improve it through rational productivity. This productivity rationalized economic improvements as well in the 18th century. In the grand scheme of it, Science and Religion went along just fine.

Science and Women

In the 17th century, women were not allowed to be a part of math, science, or much of anything dealing with thought and education. It was still firmly held that women belong at home to provide for the family. However, some women insisted on breaking these norms and pushed themselves into the scientific revolution. Among them were Margaret Cavendash, Maria Cunitz, and Maria Winkelmann.

Margaret Cavendash was married to the Duke of Newcastle. She used this marriage position to become one of the most educated women of the time including learning about Hobbes and Descartes. Her works include “Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy” (1666), “Grounds of Natural Philosophy” (1668), & “Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World” (1666). She was also the only woman to attend a meeting of the Royal Society of London.

Maria Cunitz worked with her husband, an artisan, and produced astronomy equipment with him. She took over his work after his death, despite backlash from society. Included in this is a book she published on astronomy that was originally credited to her husband, but later changed.

Maria Winkelmann was also worked with her husband on his projects. They worked together at the Berlin Academy of Science, but upon his death she was no longer able to continue his work. Marie, along with the others, helped motivated women to become more active in society and make a change.

Witch Hunts!

Despite being in an age of scientific discovery and thinking, witch hunts and irrational convictions ran wild. Between 1400 and 1700 it is estimated that 70-100 thousand individuals were convicted as witches and executed. These individuals were said to have attended sabbats where they were believed to fly, have sexual orgies with the devil, and participate in cannibalism. Fright of witches originated out of villages where they were said to be "cunning folk" who helped others cope with disasters. These people held importance in communities so widowed-women, who needed added prestige , often claimed to be witches. This explains why 80% of convicted witches were women as times shifted and these "cunning folk" became "dangerous folk." Scientific thought ended up winning in the end as rational took over and it became hard to reason how the mind and words could alter physical things.

About the Editor

The Editor and Chief is none other than Alexander Levesque. He is an honor roll student and all star cross country runner. He has been editor for two weeks and already doubled sales, creating a best seller. He ranks right up there with these scientists.