The Middle Ages
Map of Europe
Feudalsim was the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
The first of the Crusades began in 1095, when armies of Christians from Western Europe responded to Pope Urban II’s plea to go to war against Muslim forces in the Holy Land. The Crusades that followed after the first got worse and worse until there was a peace treaty signed and there was access to Jerusalem again.
The Black Death
The Black Death was a deadly plague that swept through Europe from 1347 to 1351. This disease came from fleas on rats which were on boats coming from Asia. The Black Death could kill you in less than a day and spread through Europe like wildfire. People didn't know where his came from, so they looked to God for answers. Some people even thought that it came from earthquakes.
The Spanish Inquisition
The Spanish Inquisition was Ferdinand and Isabella's way of purifying Spain. They wanted their country to be 100% Christian-no exceptions. They would cleanse the land by torturing them until they told of more heretics living somewhere. The Jews and Muslims then fled to the Ottoman Empire to escape the evil wrath of Ferdinand and Isabella.
The popes during the middle ages became very powerful and influential. The church became the one thing that united everyone. People looked up to the pope and followed the church's orders and rules with respect. smaller churches were found in every manor and Christianity wasn't really considered an option.