Diabetes - type 2

Signs, symptoms and care

Do you know what diabetes is?

"Diabetes is when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is the main type of sugar found in your blood and your main source of energy. Glucose comes from the food you eat and is also made in your liver and muscles. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body’s cells to use for energy." (National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC), June 2014).

This concept is applicable for the other types of diabetes but we will focus on diabetes type type 2, also known as Diabetes Melitus.

Diabetes Type 2 - What Is Diabetes Mellitus?


There are a lot methods to diagnose Diabetes through blood exams:

A1C test: The A1C test is a blood test that reflects the average of a person’s blood glucose levels over the past 3 months and does not show daily fluctuations. The A1C test is more convenient for patients than the traditional glucose tests because it does not require fasting and can be performed at any time of the day.

Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG):This test checks your fasting blood glucose levels. Fasting means, not having anything to eat or drink (except water) for at least 8 hours before the test. This test is usually done first thing in the morning, before breakfast.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): The OGTT is a two-hour test that checks your blood glucose levels before and 2 hours after you drink a special sweet drink. It tells the doctor how your body processes glucose.

See more at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diagnosis/?loc=db-slabnav#sthash.mQWVPyaj.dpuf and at


WHO Health Days | World Diabetes Day

Treatment and Self-care

The first treatment for type 2 diabetes is often based on meal planning, weight loss, and exercising. However, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications (pills) and/or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels.

So, consult you healthcare professional about your treatment because most part of treatment is up to you.

The image above is an algorithm for diabetes standard treatment provided by International diabetes Federation.

- See more at: http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/medication/oral-medications/#sthash.4hlFbN9u.dpuf
Big image
Diabetes care planning

Careful About Diabetes Complications!

According to American Diabetes Association, people with diabetes type 2 have high chances to develop serious health problems such as: complication in the eyes (glaucoma, eye insight and cataract); Skin (itching, bacterial/fungal infections, allergic , rashes); neuropathy (nerve damage)/ amputation; Kidney failure; and heart attack.
Complications from diabetes


Diabetes Type 2 : Nutrition

For avoiding and controlling high rates of blood sugar the best way to manage is practicing exercise and having a keeping planning meal as part of diabetics life.

So, choose healthy fats. Sure, they’ve got long names, but a diet rich in mono and polyunsaturated fats can help lower your risk of diabetes and heart disease. Canola oil and olive oil are great choices, as are the fats in avocados, nuts, and seeds.

Focus on plant foods. A diet high in whole grains can help lower the risk of diabetes and keep appetite in check. Choose a good variety of whole grain foods prepared in interesting ways, such as Mollie Katzen’s recipe for couscous-quinoa tabouli.

Cut back on refined carbs and sugary drinks. White bread, white rice, white pasta and potatoes cause fast and furious increases in blood sugar, as do sugary soft drinks, fruit punch, and fruit juice. Over time, eating lots of these refined carbohydrates and sugar may increase your risk of type 2 diabetes. To lower your risk—switch to whole grains and skip the sugar, especially the sugary drinks.

For more information click here

Meal Planning Tips

Meal Planning for People with Diabetes

Children and teens can develop Diabetes type 2

Unfortunately adult is not only who develops the disease.

According to the Kids Health organization, "the number of teens living with type 2 diabetes has increased in recent years.The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly common in U.S. kids and teens, especially in those who are overweight. Some studies report that between 8% and 45% of children who've been newly diagnosed with diabetes have the form known as type 2."

Although no one knows for certain what causes type 2 diabetes, there seems to be a genetic risk. In fact, it's estimated that 45% to 80% of affected kids have at least one parent with diabetes and may have a significant family history of the disease. In some cases, a parent may be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at the same time as the child.

Most people who develop type 2 diabetes are overweight. Excess fat makes it harder for the cells to respond to insulin. And being inactive further reduces the body's ability to respond to insulin. In the past, doctors called this type of diabetes adult-onset diabetes because it almost exclusively affected overweight adults. Today, that description is no longer accurate. More kids and teens are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, probably because more kids and teens are overweight.

Certain ethnic groups also tend to be more prone to developing type 2 diabetes, including people of Native American, African American, Hispanic/Latino, or Asian/Pacific Island descent. Also, kids in pubertyare more likely to develop the disease than younger kids, probably because of normal rises in hormone levels that can cause insulin resistance during this stage of rapid growth and physical development.

Signs and Symptoms

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes aren't always obvious and they can take a long time to develop. Sometimes, there are no symptoms. It's important to remember that not everyone with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes develops these warning signs, and not everyone who has these symptoms necessarily has type 2 diabetes.

But kids or teens who develop type 2 diabetes may:

  • urinate frequently. The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the blood by flushing out the extra glucose in urine. Kids with high blood sugar levels need to urinate more frequently and in larger volumes.
  • drink a lot of liquids. Because they're peeing so frequently and losing so much fluid, they can become very thirsty and drink a lot in an attempt to keep the levels of body water normal.
  • feel tired often because the body can't use glucose for energy properly.

See more here

Risk factor for younger diabetes type 2

Managing Children with diabetes Type 2

Type 2 diabetes in children


Healthcare Informatics: Promoting Health