Mesoamerica - The Inca Empire

3rd Period

When: Date Range, start of civilization until its decline or collapse -Laramie

1438 AD- 1532 AD.

Religion: Monotheistic/Polytheistic, giving examples of each -Laramie

The Inca Empire was Polytheistic.

Gods/Goddesses include: Inti (God of the Sun), Mama Quilla (Goddess of the moon), Pachamama (Goddess of Earth), Viracocha (God who created the Earth), and Supay (God of Death)

Social Classes: Give their Social Hierarchy, Social Pyramid -Brennon

-All young men were required to join the army with some 200,000 members.

-two main classes.

-upper

-consisted of Priests, Government Officials

-lower

-consisted of farmers, artisans, and servants

-unlike the upper class the lower had little education, the parents did all the teaching.

Economy/Trade - Caleb

The Incas were rich in foodstuffs, textiles, gold and coca, The Incas were great at city building but had no money. In fact, they had no market places at all. The Incas mostly traded among themselves. They would trade using extra agriculture items or handmade items. They mostly traded textile items they had woven. Long distance trade was supervised by the Central Government using the Famous Incan Roads. The Incas had a lot of gold which they used for jewelry and building; however, they did not trade with gold. The Spanish were very excited when they discovered the gold, this contributed to the downfall of the Inca Empire by the Spanish. The Incas traded with many people in South America, among each other, and others.
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Art/Architecture: Give examples of both, what they were made of, etc.

The Incas ruler, Pachacuti changed their architecture from mud and thatch to stone. The people built a system of some 24,800 miles of roads extending from the border of modern day Colombia to a point of South modern day Santiago Chile. Machu Piccho was built with about 200 buildings within its city. Also this building had a stone called "hitching post of the sun" and the people would gather and pray. Now for the Incas art they didn't have a writing system, instead they had a knotting system called quipo. It represents the number of men who went to war and goods that were exchanged. Also had a well-developed traditions of court theaters, consisting of tragic and comic works. Poetry was also recited, often accompanied by music play on reed instruments.

Where (MAP): General Location w/ a map

The Incan empire is located 11,000 feet in the mountains of southern Peru. The empire was extended as far as Ecuador, central Chile, and the edge of the Amazon basin.
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Agriculture: What did they grow and how did they grow it -Laramie

What they grew: beans, grains, potatoes, pepper, tomatoes, nuts, cucumbers, cotton, etc.

Livestock: llama and alpaca herds. Provided meat, wool, leather, and transportation.


-Developed a massive farming apparatus where crops and herds were commandeered from conquered peoples. Storage facilities also helped gain success.

Achievements - Caleb

There were many achievements of the Incas, here are a few.

Because they counted on everything a conquered tribe owned, they needed a way to remember everything they had counted. This led to the invention of the "quipus". The quipus had colored strings tied to a main string. The color of the strings and the distance between the knots told a story.

The Incas had two calendars, a solar calendar and a lunar calendar. The Solar Calendar counted 365 days, this calendar was used for economic activities such as agriculture, mining, warfare and construction. The Lunar Calendar was used to mark all the festivals, since this calendar was based on the moon it only had 328 days. There was about a 37 day difference between the two calendars.

The Mita System was a major achievement of the Inca Government. In this system all the people worked for the Government for a certain amount of time. Once a person turned 15 years old, it became obligatory for them to participate in the Mita. It was mandatory for a person until they became 50 years old. When people were engaged in war, their fields were cultivated by Mita People. This allowed soldiers to go to war knowing that their fields would be taken care of and their family would be well fed and clothed.

Government - Caleb

There were quite a few leaders of the Incas: Pachacuti (1438-1471), Túpac Inca Yupanqui (1471-1493), Huayna Capac (1493-1525), Huascar (1525-1532), Atahualpa (1532-1533), Manco Inca Yupanqui (1533-1544), Sayri Túpac (1545-1560), Tito Cusi (1563-1571), and Túpac Amaru (1571-1572).

The Inca rulers were venerated by the Incas, who considered them demigods, persons with deep connection with the gods. The Incas called their rulers "Sapa", which meant "The Only One" and also "Apu", which meant "Divinity". Inca rulers were highly respected since Incas believed they "had a deep connection with the gods."

The Supreme Rule of the Inca was called the "Sapa Inca". He and his royal family in Cuzco were the top of Inca hierarchy. The heads of state and church were all members of the royal family. Another key to the success of the Inca was their modern government organization. Pachacuti was the very first man to set up a great empire system and it started to run very well. They had four quarters headed by four Apos, who were just below the King. Every quarter was made up of several provinces ran by officials. The system was hierarchial and administered by a well developed bureaucracy that collected tribute and distributed it.

Decline/Collapase: How did the civilization disappear -Brennon

1525 A.D

The decline of the Incas was due to the following reasons.

-many civil wars

-diseases

- flu

-typhus