Geological Processes

Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, & Soil


Three Different Types of Weathering

Weathering is when the surface of something is worn away after exposure to the elements. There are three different types: physical, chemical, and biological. Physical weathering is when an object is worn down without its chemical composition being changed. Chemical weathering is when an object is worn down after a chemical reaction has occurred. Biological weathering is when rock is worn down from plants, animals, etc.


Erosion is when sediments that have been broken down are moved around by the elements, such as wind and water.
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Natural Bridge

The photo above shows a natural bridge in Virginia created from water continuously flowing through and wearing away the rock over time.
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Wave Rock

This landform in Australia has been formed from wave erosion; the waves have washed against the rock over time, undercutting the base and creating a sort of over-hang.


Deposition is when sediments are deposited in a place, creating rocks and landforms over time.
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This is a photo of sandbars in the Outer Banks; waves have carried sand and deposited it over time to create them.
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This is a photo of an alluvial fan in Death Valley, California; sediments in the water flowing over the mountain were deposited at the bottom and created the fan over time.

Soil Composition

Soil is made up of minerals, organic matter, air, and water. It is full of essential nutrients for plants to grow and thrive.
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How is soil used? Why is it so important in North Carolina?

Soil is used to grow plants; those that we grow just because they're visually appealing, and those called crops. Soil is so important in North Carolina because a lot of people in this state make a living off of farming, and crops such as tomatoes and strawberries are grown for food, which is essential to life.

What type of soil is found in North Carolina?

Cecil soil drains very well and is permeable, meaning it allows other substances, like water, to pass through it easily. It is made up mostly of weathered felsic, igneous, and metamorphic rocks.

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Soil Conservation

One method of soil conservation used is crop rotation. This is when the crops planted are alternated throughout the year to preserve the nutrients within the soil.
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Weathering and Erosion: Crash Course Kids #10.2

Mackenzie Bordeaux

I'm a freshman in high school, and my favorite subject in school is English. In my free time, I read a lot, work at my grandpa's restaurant, and go to the gym.