Color blindness

By: Emma Nelson

What is color blindness?

Color blindness is the decreased ability or inability, to see color or perceive color differences under normal lighting conditions. Color blindness does not mean you are actually blind.

History of color blindness

John Dalton was the first person to discover color blindness. Dalton's DNA showed that he was deuteranope, which meant he was lacking the middleware photopigment of the retina. He even said that after he died his eyes were to be examined.

How does occur?

Color blindness is caused because of an abnormal photopigment. When there are defects in the genes that create the photopigments, it creates a different photopigment which then means you will have color blindness. Most of the time, color blindness is passed down. It is passed down by the X-linked recessive pattern. Also, it can only be passed down by the mother. Males cannot pass down color blindness. Other times color blindness can be caused because of a past disease. For example, cataracts can cause a decline of color you are able to see. The picture on the left shows how it is passed down from the mother and father. Males are more likely to get color blindness, 1 out of 12 males have color blindness and 1 out of 200 women have color blindness.

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What kinds of Color blindness are there?

There are three main types of color blindness, are based on the three main colors we see, blue, red, and green. The most common type of color blindness is red-green. Red- Green blindness is where they mix up all colors with red or green as a part of there whole. For example, purple and blue. They would only see blue, because they won't see the red in the purple. The next most common type is blue-green. Blue-green is the inability to see colors with blue or green components. Complete color blindness is extremely rare.
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Tritanomaly is where you are unable to perceive blue, and is extremely rare.

1. Tritanopes color confusions

  • light blues with grey
  • dark purples with black
  • mid-greens with blues
  • oranges with reds


Deuteranomaly is where you are unable to perceive green light and is the most common.

2. Deuteranopes color confusions

  • mid-reds with mid-greens
  • blue-greens with grey and mid-pinks
  • pale pinks with light grey
  • mid-reds with mid-brown
  • light with lilac


Protanomaly is where you are unable to see red light,

3. Protanopes color confusions

  • black with shades of red
  • dark brown with dark green, dark orange and dark red
  • some blues with some reds, purple and dark pinks
  • mid-greens with some oranges

Normal Vision

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Are there symptoms to having color blindness? Can it cause further harm to the body?

There aren't many symptoms to having color blindness. The only symptom really is when you are unable to tell colors apart. As for the harm it can cause, if color blindness has been present since birth, it won't cause any further blindness to the person, but if it was caused from disease, it potentially could. People who are colorblind, generally have less sharp eyesight. This is because the cone cells of the retina are also used to see details, and with those cells damaged, it also damages the amount of detail they see. On the bright side, color blindness doesn't have a life expectancy, so there is no way you can die from the disease.
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Are there any treatments, or ways to prevent it?

Unfortunately, color blindness cannot be prevented, and there are also no treatments or medicines to treat it.

What tests are there to determine if you have color blindness?

There are multiple tests to test for color blindness, but they all the same concept. The tests are called the Keyence Vision Sensor and the EnChroma Color Blindness Test. They are both a test that shows a picture made of 2 colored dots, usually red and green and one color is used to created a number of picture. If you can see the number of picture, then you aren't but if you can't, you are. They usually use green and red because red/green color blindness is the most common but they also use all the other colors too.

Are there any support groups for people and their families with color blindness?

Yes, there are many color blindness support groups around the world. One support group is located in Ireland and is called "Fighting Blindness". There is also one in Australia. Also there is a color blindness support group online called, daily group. People can ask questions and other can answer to help them with some of there problems that others can't answer.
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