Cardiovascular System

By: Emmanuel Abrams

Structures & Functions

Heart: The heart is composed of two sides and four champers. Two ventricles that are located on the bottom of the heart pump blood away from the heart to the body.

Blood Vessels: Blood vessels are a series of elastic tubing that carry blood to and from the heart. The oxygenated blood leaves the heart and supplies oxygen and nutrients to the body via the arteries.

The Blood: Blood is a semi-viscous fluid that contains red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and a watery substance called plasma that contains proteins, sugars, fats and minerals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen to the cells and carries carbon dioxide back to the heart.

Blood Flow

Blood enters the heart through two large veins, the inferior and superior vena cava, emptying oxygen-poor blood from the body into the right atrium of the heart. The blood flows from the right atrium into your ventricle.
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Types of Blood Vessels

Arteries: carries the blood away from the heart.

Capillaries: enables the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues.

Veins: carries blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.
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Distinguishing Among Human Blood Groups

The blood of different people varies as it contains different molecules of protein called antigens and antibodies. They vary between blood types. Due to variations in antibodies people have A, AB, B and O blood groups. Variations in the antigens blood is either Rh positive or Rh negative.
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Cardiovascular Diseases

Myocardial Infarction: necrosis of heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia. (Heart attack). Some symptoms are fatigue, chest discomfort, and malaise.


Varicose Veins: gnarled, enlarged veins that are commonly affected are those in your legs and feet because standing and walking upright increases the pressure in the veins of your lower body.

Valve Prolapse: a common cause of a heart murmur cause by a leaky heart valve. This can happen when the main heart muscle, called the left ventricle, squeezes during each heartbeat.