"Replication, Replication" & "Publication, Publication"
•What is Replication?
- To follow the precise path taken by a previous researcher and then review and try to improve on the data or methodology.
•Why to Replicate?
- To understand, evaluate and specially build up on existing works.
•Important for Graduate Students?
- Strengthen students' ability to learn the basics of academic research and ultimately conduct their own original research.
- Your paper should address one problem in your field of interest and it should contain one point with several supporting points.
- Find an article in your field, acquire the data used in the article, and replicate the numerical results in the tables and/or figures
- Have an approval of professor
- If you decide that the conclusions of the original article are incorrect, then show why you think that but also what led the authors of the original article to have a different conclusion.
- Clarify with precision the extent to which you were able to replicate the author’s results.
- This paper should be a report and it should focus on the contribution to the collective knowledge about the world.
- Try to improve the presentation of the original results. See whether you can find useful, additional, or even contradictory information not discussed in the article
- Try to make one improvement, or the smallest number of improvements possible to produce new results, and show the results
- If you are able to improve or change the author’s results in some important way with the minimal change necessary, write that up separately.
- Look for as many observable implications as possible and check them
- Understand your raw data prior to statistical modeling, and help your readers do so.
Style of Replication paper
- Your paper should be structured and organized into sections and subsections.
- The overall structure of the paper, and all the key points you want to make, should make sense and aim to accomplish your goal.
- Follow the table of contents
- Do not try to hide weaknesses in your paper. If you know of a problem with your analysis that you have not solved, clearly describe the problem.
- The cover pager/front matters
- Appearance also matters
- Identify the specific empirical question you are interested and immediately get to it.
- Try to not include a section titled “literature review”
- If you have long technical lists of coding rules, or anything else that seems essential but distracts from your point, put it in an appendix.
- Be nice
- Math: Larger equations should be set with equation number
- Tables and Figures: should be included to make specific points, and to draw readers’ attention to these points.
Problems to avoid and other suggestions
- Decisions about what to present should be made by you. You have been given the tools to create your own statistical models.
- Avoid stating the hypothesis like this
- Hypothesis 1: The effect of…
- Hypothesis 2: Instead, the effect of...
- If you want to emphasise something do it with italics
- Try to satisfy someone quantitative (by doing the statistics) and a smart non-quantitative type (By fully explaining things in sufficient detail).
- Make sure all point estimates come with some measure of their uncertainty, such as confidence intervals, or standard errors.
- Provide sufficient information about your analysis so that it is possible for someone who reads your paper to replicate the analysis
Recommendations for future Replications:
- Include all necessary information to replicate empirical results
- Quantitative: show original data, computer program, process to obtain the data, etc.
- Qualitative: transcript of interviews, audio tapes, etc.2. Once replication data set has been created it should be available and it should make reference to the original work (as the first footnote)
- Make info available on request
- Instantly available via internet – Free and easy submission
- PAVA : Public Affairs Video Archives
- ICPSR: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research