Imperialism and Egypt
Scramble for Africa and Berlin Conference
EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA
- Because of advances in technology and the need for goods, Europeans wanted control over African territories.
- In 1884 and 1885, European nations met in Africa to divide up the continent amongst themselves.
- They did this to avoid conflict between European Nations.
- Britain, Germany, and Portugal came out with definitive control of various parts of the continent.
- There were no African representatives.
Ethiopia and Liberia
- The only areas of Africa to remain independent.
- Liberia was a colony for freed and escaped American slaves.
- Ethiopians had defeated the Italians.
- Prior to 1805, Egypt had been a part of the Ottoman Empire
- The Ottoman empire existed from 1299-1923
- In 1805, Muhammad Ali came to power
- Muhammad Ali worked to modernize Egypt and bring in crops and industries that would help the newly semi-independent Egypt succeed.
- Egypt was officially given autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in 1867
The Suez Canal
- People wanted a route from Europe to Asia that didn't require going around Africa.
- In 1854, the Egyptian leader agreed to let Ferdinand de Lesseps build a canal that would connect the Mediterranean and Red seas.
- Two years later, the Egyptians agreed that the French Suez Canal Company could operate the canal for 99 years after it was finished.
- The French owned most of the company, and the leader of Egypt owned the rest. Eventually the Egyptian leader had to sell his shares because of money troubles.
- The British bought up the shares.
Video: How the Suez Canal made history
- In 1881, the British stopped a revolt by the Egyptian Army.
- In 1914, Egypt became a British protectorate.
- In order to protect Egypt, Britain also wanted to control The Sudan.
- The British had to fight against Muhammad Ahmad "The Mahdi" who had taken control of a large portion of The Sudan.
- After being defeated by the Mahdi in 1885, the British finally took control of the Sudan in 1889.
Egyptian Revolution 1952
- Ended British occupation
- Ended Egyptian monarchy