Imperialism and Egypt

Scramble for Africa and Berlin Conference


Berlin Conference

  • Because of advances in technology and the need for goods, Europeans wanted control over African territories.
  • In 1884 and 1885, European nations met in Africa to divide up the continent amongst themselves.
  • They did this to avoid conflict between European Nations.
  • Britain, Germany, and Portugal came out with definitive control of various parts of the continent.
  • There were no African representatives.

Ethiopia and Liberia

  • The only areas of Africa to remain independent.
  • Liberia was a colony for freed and escaped American slaves.
  • Ethiopians had defeated the Italians.


Ottoman Control

  • Prior to 1805, Egypt had been a part of the Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman empire existed from 1299-1923
  • In 1805, Muhammad Ali came to power
  • Muhammad Ali worked to modernize Egypt and bring in crops and industries that would help the newly semi-independent Egypt succeed.
  • Egypt was officially given autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in 1867
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The Suez Canal

  • People wanted a route from Europe to Asia that didn't require going around Africa.
  • In 1854, the Egyptian leader agreed to let Ferdinand de Lesseps build a canal that would connect the Mediterranean and Red seas.
  • Two years later, the Egyptians agreed that the French Suez Canal Company could operate the canal for 99 years after it was finished.
  • The French owned most of the company, and the leader of Egypt owned the rest. Eventually the Egyptian leader had to sell his shares because of money troubles.
  • The British bought up the shares.

Video: How the Suez Canal made history
  • In 1881, the British stopped a revolt by the Egyptian Army.
  • In 1914, Egypt became a British protectorate.
  • In order to protect Egypt, Britain also wanted to control The Sudan.
  • The British had to fight against Muhammad Ahmad "The Mahdi" who had taken control of a large portion of The Sudan.
  • After being defeated by the Mahdi in 1885, the British finally took control of the Sudan in 1889.
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Egyptian Revolution 1952

  • Ended British occupation
  • Ended Egyptian monarchy