Mining and Fracking

By Sarah, Jackie, and David

Surface Vs. Subsurface mining

Surface mining is generally easier than Subsurface mining, and Surface mining does more damage to the crust than subsurface does. Subsurface mining is difficult and expensive to complete, Very dangerous conditions could include collapces, gases, and particles in the air, However it dosent damage as many ecosystems.
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Sub-Surface mining example

Slope: Slope entrance to a mining shaft

Drift: More common way of mining, entering from a horizontal plane and generally in a hill or mountain.

Shaft: Nearly vertical mine shaft going up and down (no entrance from below.)

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Surface mining example

Strip Mining: mining the layers of rock down by layers and stripping the minerals.

Open Pit: As shown in picture, mining into a pit or burrow and extracting the minerals.

Mountain Top Removal: Mining of a summit, removing land and gaining minerals such as coal.

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1-8 Million gallons of water is needed to complete a job, mixed with gallons of sand and chemicals to make the required fluid. 40,000 gallons of chemicals are used. 600 carcinogens and deadly toxins are used in the making of the fluid. Total: 72 trillion gallons of water, 360 billion gallons of chemicals run through our gas lines. Methane and other chemicals contaminate nearby ground water. (Including drinking water!) Only 30-50% of fluid is recovered, the rest is lost and is not biodegradable.