Identification and Definition
Mumps is an acute viral illness that has no cure. While rarely deadly, Mumps may cause painful swelling in several areas, and also cause "chipmunk cheeks." Mumps spreads easily and is preventable by a series of vaccinations.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms may appear between 12-25 days after exposure. Although some people experience no or mild symptoms most people recover within a few weeks.
Common symptoms include:* Fever
* Muscle aches
* Swollen/tender salivary glands (parotitis)
Persons infected with the Mumps should avoid contact with others until at least 5 days after onset of parotitis. Long and close contact with infected persons increases the risk of transmission.Mumps is transmitted via:
* Respiratory droplet contact
PHIL Photo ID# 130
Characteristic jaw swelling of Mumps.
PHIL Photo ID# 8757
Ultrastructural details of Mumps as seen using a transmission electron micrograph (TEM).
Mumps U.S. 1980-2011
* Orchitis (testicular inflammation) 12% - 66% in post-pubertal males
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) 3.5%
* Unilateral Deafness 1/20,000
* Death 2/10,000 from 1966-1971
Also notable, in the pre-vaccine era Mumps was responsible for approximately 10% of symptomatic aseptic meningitis.
Current and Recommended Control Measures
In the U.S. approximately 212,000 cases of Mumps occurred in 1964 before vaccination and about 3,000 cases occurred annually between 1983-1985, according to CDC. While many countries worldwide don't have reportable numbers, the WHO listed China as having 187,500 cases of Mumps in 2014.
Vaccination for Mumps is recommended for children after age 12 months with a second dose to follow between the ages of 4-6. The Mumps vaccine is available as a combination shot MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) or as MMRV (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella).
Precautions for the vaccine include: anaphylactic reactions to neomycin, allergies to any vaccine components, pregnancy, illness, recent blood transfusions, and immunosuppression.