AP Psych

Syllabus, Unit Reviews


AP Psychology COURSE SYLLABUS Mrs. Barr– barrh@friscoisd.org

Smore Page: https://www.smore.com/u/mrsbarr

Course Objectives:

This is a COLLEGE LEVEL course. It is designed to replace Introduction to Psychology in a student’s freshman year of college. Students who choose this course should do so with the full understanding that only self-motivated, dedicated students will be successful. This is a one semester course. We have less than 18 weeks to cover a lot of material (really, we have approximately 33 class periods to cover 15 chapters— just enough for you to do well on the AP exam). Please be aware that due to the nature of the material some of our discussions will include sensitive material that must be handled in a mature manner.

The accelerated pace of this college level course requires students to read assigned chapters, complete the assigned modules, watch videos when assigned, and study for tests and quizzes. We will cover a chapter in 2-3 class periods. There will be quizzes on every chapter. At the end of each unit there will be an exam that will mirror the AP Exam. Tests may also consist of free-response questions similar to those found on the AP Exam. The class will be rigorous and challenging in order to prepare you for advanced psychology courses in college, therefore:

§ Students should study the major core concepts and theories of psychology. They should be able to define key terms and to use these terms in their everyday vocabulary. Students should be able to compare and contrast major theories in psychology.

§ Students should learn the basic skills of psychological research. They should be able to devise simple research projects, interpret and generalize from results, and evaluate the validity of research reports.

§ Students should be able to apply psychological concepts to their own lives. They should be able to recognize psychological principles when they are encountered in everyday situations.

§ Students should develop critical thinking skills. They should become aware of the danger of blindly accepting or rejecting any psychological theory without careful, objective evaluation.

§ Students should build their reading, writing, and discussion skills.

§ Students should learn about the ethical standards governing the work of psychologists. They should maintain high ethical standards and sensitivity in applying the principles of psychology to themselves and others.

§ Students should learn about the different fields of psychology and the professions within those fields. They should understand the requirements and expectations to pursue a future in psychology.

Every student should purchase/borrow the Princeton Review AP Exam Review book as soon as possible. You can begin using it immediately to complete homework and study for quizzes. Also, visit my smore page for lots of helpful docs and assignments… https://smore.com/vx9v

Course Overview:

      • Chapter 1 – The Evolution of Psychology
      • Chapter 2 – Research in Psychology
    • Unit 2 – MIND & BODY
      • Chapter 3 – Biological Bases of Behavior
      • Chapter 4 – Sensation & Perception
      • Chapter 5 – Variations in Consciousness
      • Chapter 6 – Learning
      • Chapter 7 – Human Memory
      • Chapter 8 – Language & Cognition
      • Chapter 10 – Motivation & Emotion
      • Chapter 11 – Human Development across the Life Span
      • Chapter 12 – Personality Theories
      • Chapter 9 –Intelligence & Psychological Testing Personality Theories
      • Chapter 16 – Social Psychology
      • Chapter 14 – Psychological Disorders
      • Chapter 15 – Treatment of Psychological Disorders

School Policies on the next page…

School Policies:

  • Absent Work: Make-Up work is work that a student has missed due to an absence whether excused or unexcused. Make-up work applies to ALL students. On the first day that a student returns to the class(es) that he/she missed, the student will be responsible for scheduling a time with the teacher to receive and complete any work, including daily activities for a grade that was missed during the absence. Work missed should generally be made up within two school days of the absence. The best way to get missed work is to email me (the sooner, the better!).

  • Late Work/Daily Work: Students must turn in all daily work in a timely manner. No late work for daily work will be permitted. Teachers will drop the lowest daily grade each six weeks.

  • Minor & Major Work: Student may turn in work late with a 10 point grade reduction for each day the assignment is late. Students are permitted a maximum of five late days (not 5 school days or class periods) on an assignment.

  • Retests: see details in the student handbook—the policy has changed dramatically! Retests are only given in the case of a student scoring less than 85 (objective tests only, doesn’t apply to projects, papers, etc…)

  • Tutorials and makeup tests:

Please email me if you are coming in so I know to be in my room; otherwise I can be found in the computer lab (d208) giving makeup tests, in my cubicle, or in my AcDec room (d213).

Schedule is as follows

Before school: Tuesday and Wednesday from 8:20 – 8:50 am.

After school: Wednesdays 4:30 – 5:00 pm, or by appointment only.

Retests: Tuesdays @ 8:00am and Wednesdays @ 4:15pm (tardiness not acceptable for retests)

  • Tardiness: Students tardy to any class period must have a pass from the LSHS Tardy System in order to enter a classroom after the tardy bell. The tardy system will assign consequences as listed in the student handbook.

  • Grading Proportions:

§Tests - 50% §Quizzes - 30% §Daily - 20%

Note: Your daily grade will be primarily based on graded discussion of material/participation

  • Supplies: *The Princeton Review is VERY useful as a resource and you can begin using it to complete homework immediately. There are a few copies in my room for use during tutorials.

Also you will need:

1 ½ inch-3 ring binder with dividers

Notebook paper (not spiral, no fridge please J)

pencils and pens

colored pencils for part of brain and other diagrams (minimum 8 colors)

highlighters for essay writing, etc. (minimum 5 colors)

  • Text: Wayne Weiten, Psychology: Themes and Variations, 5th edition (Wadsworth, 2001)

Parents, Hello! Please feel free to email me at anytime if you have any questions or concerns. I am happy to assist in the effort to make your student’s experience in this class a positive AND successful one! J I will be emailing you collectively throughout the semester as needed to keep you informed of important matters, so please make sure that the email address that we have on file is current. If you would like to update your email with us, please send the correct information to our data clerk Vicki Melton: MeltonV@friscoisd.org

I look forward to meeting you all. –Mrs. Barr

Unit 1 Review



% OF AP EXAM/class periods to cover


2 – 4 % / 2 days

METHODS & APPROACHES -ch 2 -Research Methods -Perspectives -Statistics


6 – 8 % / 3days


1. 2. 3. 4.


Psychology-study of... Monism and Dualism Introspection Nature v. Nurture Debate

School of Structuralism: what are their contributions to the field? a. Wilhelm Wundt- b. G. Stanley Hall- c. Edward Titchener-

d. Margaret Floy Washburn-

Early Schools of Psychology

6. School of Functionalism: what are their contributions to the field? a. William James (his book)- b. Mary Whiton Calkins-


7. Behavioral approach: a. Pavlov-

b. Watson-

c. Skinner- 8. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic approach


a. Freud- b. Jung- c. Adler-

Humanistic approach a. Rogers-

b. Maslow- 10. Biological approach

11. Cognitive approach a. Piaget-

12. Evolutionary approach 13. Socio-cultural approach 14. Eclectic approach

Domains: brief description of each: 15. Clinical psychology- 16. Counseling psychologists- 17. Developmental psychology- 18. Educational psychologists-

19. Engineering psychologists- 20. Experimental psychologists- 21. Forensic psychologists- 22. Health psychologists-

23. Industrial/Organizational psychologists- 24. Neuropsychologists- 25. Personality psychologists- 26. Psychometricians (measurement psychologists)- 27. Rehabilitation psychologists-

28. School psychologists-

29. Sports psychologists-

Research Methods

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Control group 11. Random assignment 12. Confounding variables 13. Operational definition 14. Experimenter bias

Hypothesis Replication Empirical- Independent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV) Population (of an experiment) Sample

Random selection Experimental group

15. “Generalizability” of a study 16. Demand characters 17. Single-blind procedure 18. Double-blind study

19. Placebo 20. Placebo effect 21. Reliability 22. Validity 23. Descriptive statistics

a. Frequency distribution b. Central tendency

i. Mode ii. Median iii. Mean

c. Variability d. Range e. Standard Deviation (SD) f. Normal distribution g. Percentile score h. Correlation coefficient (r)

24. Inferential statistics 25. Statistical significance (p) 26. Ethical guidelines for research (list/explain all)

27. Methods: describe each briefly, include Advantage and Disadvantages of each a. Experiment

b. Quasi-experiment c. Naturalistic Observation d. Surveys & Tests e. Case Studies

28. Hawthorne Effect

29. False consensus bias (effect)

Unit 2 Review



% OF AP EXAM/class periods to cover


8 – 10 % / 3 days


7 – 9 % / 3 days


2 – 4 % /0-1 days


1. Neurophysiologist 2. Lesions/Ablations 3. Viewing brain structure:

a. CAT or CT

b. MRI 4. Exploring Brain Function:

a. EEG b. PET c. fMRI

5. CNS-Central Nervous System 6. PNS-Peripheral

a. SNS- Somatic 7. ANS-Autonomic

a. Sympathetic nervous system

b. Parasympathetic nervous system 8. Spinal cord

9. Brain model, evolutionary 10. Brain model, developmental 11. Convolutions 12. Contralaterality

13. Parts of the Brain + Functions: a. Medulla oblongata

b. Pons c. Cerebellum d. Basal ganglia e. Thalamus f. Hypothalamus g. Amygdala h. Hippocampus i. Cerebral Cortex j. Association areas

14. Lobes of Cerebral Cortex (4 right, 4 left): a. Occipital

b. Parietal c. Frontal d. Temporal

15. Aphasia 16. Glial Cells 17. Neuron

a. Cell body b. Dendrites c. Axon d. Myelin sheath-breakdown caused Multiple Sclerosis e. Terminal buttons

18. Neurotransmitters-include effects if too little or too much a. Acetylcholine (ACh) (associated with Alzheimer's)

b. Dopamine (associated with Schizophrenia) c. Glutamate d. Serotonin e. Endorphin

f. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) 19. Agonist neurotransmitters 20. Antagonist neurotransmitters 21. action potential 22. Sodium and Potassium ions 23. All-or-none principle 24. Nodes of Ranvier 25. Saltatory conduction 26. Synapse 27. synaptic cleft 28. Excitatory neurotransmitter 29. Inhibitory neurotransmitter 30.Reflex arc

a. Sensory receptor b. Afferent neuron c. Efferent neuron

31. Endocrine system components + functions a. Hormone

b. Pineal gland c. Hypothalamus d. Pituitary gland e. Thyroid gland

f. Parathyroids g. Adrenal glands h. Pancreas i. Ovaries and testes

32. Evolutionary psychologists: Darwin + theories 33. Behavioral genetics 34. Zygote 35. Heredity vs. environment + Heritability

a. Identical twins

b. Fraternal twins 36. Chromosome errors:

a. Turner’s syndrome b. Klinefelter’s syndrome c. Down syndrome

37. Genotype 38. Phenotype 39. Homozygous 40. Heterozygous 41. Dominant gene 42. Recessive gene 43. Tay-Sachs syndrome 44. Albinism 45. Phenylketonuria (PKU) 46. Huntington’s disease 47. Sex-linked traits 48. Color blindness

Sensation & Perception


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Transduction 11. Perception

Sensation Psychophysics Stimulus Absolute threshold Signal detection theory Difference threshold Just noticeable difference (jnd) Weber’s law

Subliminal stimulation

Vision/Human Eye

12. Cornea 13. Iris 14. Pupil 15. Lens 16. Accommodation 17. Retina

18. Fovea; foveal vision 19. Photoreceptors

a. Rods

b. Cones 20. Bipolar cells

21. Ganglion cells

22. Blind spot 23. Optic nerve 24. Acuity 25. Dark adaptation 26. Feature detectors 27. Parallel processing 28. Trichromatic theory 29. Opponent processing theory 30.Sensory adaptation

31. Attention-Stroop Effect Hearing/Human Ear

32. Audition 33. Frequency 34. Pitch 35. Timbre 36. Amplitude 37. Sound localization 38. Parts of Ear:

a. b. c.

Outer—pinna, auditory canal, eardrum Middle—hammer, anvil, stirrup Inner—cochlea, semicircular canals, vestibular sacs

39. Auditory nerve 40. Conduction deafness 41. Nerve (sensorineural) deafness 42. Place theory 43. Frequency theory

Other Sensation terms: 44. Somatosensation 45. Gate-control theory 46. Kinethesis

47. Vestibular sense 48. Gustation 49. Olfaction

Perceptual Processes:

50.Selective attention 51. Bottom-up processing 52. Top-down processing 53. Perceptual constancy 54. Visual capture (Gestalt psychology)

a. Figure-ground b. Proximity c. Similarity d. Continuity

55. Depth perception 56. Monocular cues

a. Interposition (overlap) b. Relative size c. Aerial perspective (relative clarity) d. Texture gradient e. Relative height (elevation) f. Linear perspective g. Relative brightness

h. Motion parallax

i. Accommodation 57. Binocular cues

a. Retinal disparity

b. Convergence 58. Optical or visual illusions

a. Reversible figures b. Illusory contour c. Muller’s-Lyer d. Ponzo

States of Consciousness


2. 3. 4. 5.

Levels of Consciousness a. Attention

b. Preconscious c. Unconscious (subconscious) d. Nonconscious

Hypothalamus Circadian rhythm Reticular formation (activating system) States of Consciousness:

a. -Sleep, characteristics + what waves in each stage? i. Stage 1

ii.Stage 2 iii. Stage3 iv. Stage 4

v. REM

6. 7. 8. 9.

vi. NREM Sleep disorders, characteristics + waves and/or what stage?

a. Insomnia b. Narcolepsy c. Apnea d. Night terrors e. Sleepwalking (waves? Stage?)

Dream theories: Freud/ Psychoanalytic (Manifest content & Latent content) Activation-synthesis Cognitive information processing

b. Daydreaming c. Hypnosis d. Meditation e. Drug Induced States

Depressants Narcotics Stimulants Hallucinogens

Psychoactive drug

Psychological dependence Physiological dependence (addiction) Withdraw symptoms

Unit 3 Review



% OF AP EXAM/class periods to cover


7 – 9 % / 3 days

COGNITION – ch 7 + 8 Memory, Problem Solving & Language Acquisition

8 – 10 % / 2 days


1. 2.


4. 5. 6. 7.

Unconditioned Learning Classical Conditioning

a. Stimulus

b. Neutral stimulus (NS)

stimulus (UCS or US) a. Unconditioned response (UCR or UR) b. Conditioned stimulus (CS) c. Acquisition:

US --> UR NS + US --> UR US = CS

d. Extinction e. Spontaneous recovery f. Generalization g. Discrimination h. Higher-order conditioning

Aversive conditioning

Instrumental learning Law of Effect Operant conditioning

a. Positive reinforcement

b. Primary reinforcer c. Secondary reinforcer d. Generalized reinforcer e. Premack principal f. Negative reinforcement (escape + avoidance) g. Punishment h. Omission training i. Shaping j. Chaining

Reinforcement schedules

a. Continuous b. Partial or Intermittent c. Fixed ratio d. Fixed interval e. Variable ratio f. Variable interval


9. 10. Behavior modification, applied behavior analysis 11. Token economy 12. (Biological) Preparedness-inclination to form associations btw certain stimuli and responses 13. Instinctive drift 14. Cognitivist Theories:

a. They reject Pavlov’s Contiguity theory

b. Contingency theory (Rescorla) 15. Latent learning

16. Insight

Superstitious behaviors

17. Observational learning Cognition: Memory


Three models




Information Processing Model i. Encoding

ii.Storage iii. Retrieval

Levels of Processing Theory or Semantic Network Theory i. Shallow processing

ii.Deep processing Atkinson-Shiffrin model:

i. Sensory memory- how long? 1. Visual encoding

2. Iconic memory 3. Acoustic encoding 4. Echoic memory 5. Selective attention 6. Automatic processing 7. Parallel processing (connection with Stroop effect) 8. Effortful processing 9. Feature extraction (pattern recognition)

ii.Short-term memory (STM)-how long? 1. Rehearsal

2. Maintenance rehearsal 3. Elaborative rehearsal 4. Chunking

2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

iii. Long-termmemory(LTM)-howlong? 1. Explicit (Declarative) memory

a. Semantic

b. Episodic 2. Implicit (non-declarative) memory

a. Also includes: Procedural memory Prospective Memory (long + short term)

Retrospective Memory (long + short term) Models for Organizing Information in LTM

a. Hierarchies i. Concepts

ii.Prototypes b. Semantic Networks

c. Schema i. Script

d. Connectionism

Neural network or Parellel processing model

Long term potentiation

Biology of Memory: a. Thalamus b. Hippocampus c. Amygdale

d. Cerebellum

5. 6. 7.

Mnemonic devices Method of loci Peg word system

8. Retrieval a. Retrieval cue

b. Priming c. Recognition d. Recall e. Reconstruction f. Confabulation g. Flashbulb memory h. Misinformation effect i. Serial position effect

i. Primacy effect ii.Recency effect

j. Encoding specificity principle k. Context-dependent memory l. Mood congruence (mood dependent) memory m. State-dependent memory effect n. Distributed practice o. Massed practice

9. Forgetting a. Interference

b. Proactive interference c. Retroactive interference d. Repression e. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon f. Anterograde amnesia g. Retrograde amnesia

explicit memory disorder in which someone can recall

h. Source amnesia-

certain information, but they do not know where or how they obtained it.

10. Overlearning

Cognition: Problem Solving

11. Metacognition 12. Problem solving:

a. Trial and error b. Algorithm c. Heuristic d. Insight learning e. Deductive reasoning f. Inductive reasoning

13. Hindrances to problem solving a. Mental sets

b. Functional fixedness c. Cognitive illusion d. Availability heuristics e. Representative heuristics f. Framing

g. Anchoring effect h. Confirmation bias i. Belief perseverance j. Belief bias k. Hindsight bias l. Overconfidence bias

14. Overcoming obstacles to problem solving

a. Creativity b. Incubation c. Brainstorming d. Divergent thinking e. Convergent thinking

Language & Language Acquisition: 15. Language terms

a. Phonemes b. Morphemes c. Grammar d. Syntax e. Semantics

16. Language Development- stages + ages associated with a. Babbling

b. Holophase c. Telegraphic speech d. Overgeneralization or over regularization e. Behavioral perspective f. Nativist perspective (Noam Chomsky) g. Social interactive perspective

17. Linguistic Relativity hypothesis (Benjamin Whorf)

Unit 4 Review



% OF AP EXAM/class periods to cover

MOTIVATION & EMOTION – ch 10 (and Stress)-ch 13

7 – 9 % / 3 days


7 – 9 % / 3 days


1. Motivation



Motivation theories: a. Instinct theory b. Drive reduction theory

i. Homeostasis ii.Need

iii. Drive c. Incentive theory

d. Arousal theory i. Yerkes-Dodson law

e. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs i. Biological needs

ii.Safety and security needs iii. Belongingnessandloveneeds iv. Self-esteem needs

v. Self actualization needs + evidence to support theory? Physiological Motives

a. Hunger-fully explain physiologically i. LH lateral hypothalamus

ii.norepinephrine, GABA, neuropedtide Y iii. PVN,Paraventricularhypothalamus iv. Stimulation of VMH, ventromedial hypothalamus—stops eating behavior

v. Set point vi. Anorexia nervosa

vii. Bulimianervosa b. Thirst

c. Pain d. Sex

i. Sexual orientation ii.Homosexuality iii. Bisexuality iv. Heterosexuality

v. Sexual response cycle: arousal, plateau, orgasm, resolution Social motives

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Social conflict situations

Need for achievement Affiliation motive Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Overjustification effect

a. Approach-approach conflicts b. Avoidance-approach conflicts c. Approach-avoidance conflicts d. Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts


11. Components of Emotion a. Physiology of emotions: sympathetic nervous system and hormonal secretion b. Cognition of emotions: experiences

c. Behavioral component of emotions: overt behavior 12. Cross cultural studies support six basic emotions based on facial recognition:

a. Joy, fear, anger, sadness, surprise, and disgust (inborn) 13. Theories of Emotion:

a. Evolutionary theories b. James-Lange theory c. Cannon-Bard theory d. Opponent-processing theory e. Schachter-Singer two-factor theory f. Cognitive-appraisal theory


14. Selye’s General Adaptive Syndrome a. Alarm reaction

b. Resistance

c. Exhaustion stage 15. Stressful life events:

a. Catastrophes b. Significant life events

i. Holmes and Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating Scale c. Daily hassles

16. Type A personality traits + health risks 17. Type B personality traits 18. Coping strategies

a. Maladaptive (negative ones) b. Adaptive c. Defense mechanisms (see chapter on Personality)

19. Positive psychology

Developmental Psychology


Physical Development a. critical period b. prenatal development c. zygote d. Embryo e. Fetus f. Teratogen g. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) h. Neonate i. Reflex

i. Rooting ii.Sucking iii. Swallowing iv. Grasping/Palmer v. Moro or Startle vi. Foot/Babinski vii. Stepping

j. habituation vs. dis-habituation k. Childhood: lift head, roll over, sit, creep, stand, and walk

i. Rapid proliferation of dendrites = major way brain changes during childhood l. Puberty

i. Adolescent brain marked by pruning of dendrites and development of emotional limbic system and frontal lobes

m. Midlife/”Middlesence”- Crisis? (Levinson); Second Adolescence (Gail Sheehy)



n. Death and Dying- Stages of acceptance (Elizabeth Kubler-Ross) Cognitive Development

a. b. c. d.


f. g. h.




Piaget’s theory (Nature) of Cognitive Development, characteristics + ages assoc. with each-natural progression of going through stages (discontinuity).

i. Sensorimotor 1. object permanence

ii.Preoperational 1. Egocentrism

2. Animism

3. Artificialism iii. Concreteoperational

1. conservation concepts iv. Formal operational

Sociocultural theory of cognitive Development—Lev Vygotsky (Continuity theory)

Internalization Zone of proximal development (ZPD) Aging: Alzheimer’s disease: Fluid v. Crystallized Intelligence

Moral Development” (Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory): a. Preconventional

i. Stage 1 ii.Stage 2

b. Conventional i. Stage 3

4. 5.


ii.Stage 4 c. Postconventional

i. Stage 5 ii.Stage 6

Carol Gilligan’s criticism of Kohlberg’s study

Social Development a. Culture

b. Bonding c. Critical period and imprinting (Konrad Lorenz) d. Attachment

i. Harry Harlow study: monkeys/mothers ii.Mary Ainsworth: “strange situation:

1. secure attachment

2. insecure attachment e. Temperament

f. Self awareness g. Social referencing h. Parenting styles—Diana Baumrind

i. Authoritarian ii.Authoritative iii. Permissive iv. Uninvolved

* most successful (kids with high self esteem) are warm, authoritative

Erik Erikson’s Theory of Pyscho-Social Development – 8 stages when faced with crisis to resolve. Chart stage, period of development, crisis, positive resolution


Gender Development- how differing perspectives explain terms: a. Gender

b. Gender roles c. Gender stability d. Gender consistency e. Gender schema f. Gender role stereotypes g. Androgyny

Unit 5 Review



% OF AP EXAM/class periods to cover


6 – 8 % / 2days


5 – 7 % / 2 days


7 – 9 % / 2 days


1. 2. 3.


Idiographic methods Nomothetic methods Biological approach

a. Heritability and environmental role

b. (Davis Buss) Evolutionary psychologists: natural selection + personality traits

Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic approach (Freud) a. Levels of the mind

i. Conscious ii.Pre-conscious iii. Unconscious

b. Systems of personality i. Id

ii. Ego iii. Superego

c. Defense Mechanisms: i. Repression


iii. iv. v. vi. vii.



Displacement Reaction formation Sublimation

d. (Freud) Psychosexual Theory of Development = unresolved conflict in each stage leads to fixation. (see chart)

e. (Carl Jung) Analytic theory (stems from Freudian theories) i. Collective unconscious ii.Archetypes iii. Individuation

f. (Alfred Adler) Ego (or Individual) Theory i. Overcoming inferiority complexes

g. (Karen Horney) attack on Freud’s theories i. Womb envy + social status

Humanistic approach a. (Abraham Maslow) self-actualization b. (Carl Rogers) self-theory + unconscious positive regard

(Skinner) Behavioral approach Cognitive approach (and social cognitive/ social learning approach)

a. (George Kelly) personal construction theory b. social cognitive/ social learning theory c. (Albert Bandura) reciprocal determinism d. (Julian Rotter) locus of control

i. Inner locus of control

ii.Outer locus of control e. (Walter Mischel) CAPS, Cognitive-affective personality system


6. 7.

8. 9. 10. Trait theory


collective efficacy

a. (Gordon Allport) Three levels of traits:

i. ii. iii.

Cardinal trait

Central trait Secondary trait

b. (Hans Eysenck) Three dimensions of personality using factor analysis: i. Extroversion/extraversion ii.Neuroticism iii. Psychoticism

c. (Raymond Cattell) Sixteen basic traits

i. ii. iii.

Surface traits Source traits

Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) d. (Paul Costa Robert McCrae) Five-factor model, “The Big Five” = OCEAN

i. Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism

11. Assessment techniques to measure personality

a. b. c. d.

Unstructured interviews Structured interviews Behavioral assessments

Projective personality tests-psychoanalysts use w/ Free Association technique

i. Rorschach inkblot

ii.TAT Thematic Apperception Test Self report methods: verbal questions or written questionnaires

e. 12. Other specific tests used to measure personality:

a. Jung: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator b. Cattell: 16PF c. Rotter: Internal-External Locus of Control Scale

d. Maslow: Personal Orientation Inventory e. Rogers: Q-sort f. Five factor model: BFQ, Big Five Questionnaire + NEO Personal Inventory g. MMPI-2: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

13. Halo effect 14. Hawthorn effect 15. Self-concept 16. Self-esteem

Testing and Individual Differences



3. 4.

Psychometrics (psychometricians) a. Constructs b. Standardization c. Norms

d. Reliability

e. Validity Types of tests:

a. Performance tests b. Speed tests c. Power tests d. Aptitude test

e. Achievement test f. Group tests g. Individualized tests

Ethics and standards in testing: a. APA guidelines

Intelligence and Intelligence testing

a. Reification b. Intelligence, official definition c. Stanford-Binet intelligence test (Lewis Terman)

i. Formula

ii.Measures d. Wechsler Intelligent Tests:

i. WPPSI ii.WISC iii. WAIS

e. Degrees of mental retardation (or cognitive ability): provide IQ range + functioning for each:

1. mild 2. moderate 3. severe 4. profound

level of

f. Factor analysis iv.

v. vi.


Charles Spearman: (g) and (s) factors Thurstone: primary mental abilities, 7 factors

John Horn and Raymond Cattell: 2 factors Fluid intelligence Crystallized intelligence

i. 8 + intelligences: logical-math, verbal-linguistic, spatial, kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalistic

f. Emotional Intelligence-“EQ” (Goleman, Salovey, Mayer) i. Construct defined as:

g. Triarchic (3) Theory of Intelligence (Robert Sternberg)

2. e. Multiple intelligence (Howard Gardner)



Heredity/environment influence on intelligence: a. Flynn effect b. Twin studies reveal: c. Francis Galton theory: heredity primarily responsible for IQ

Human diversity and testing: a. Stereotype threat (Claude Steele) b. Within-group differences c. Between-group differences

Social Psychology


Group dynamics terms: a. Social group b. Norms c. In-groups

d. Out-groups e. Roles f. Social loafing g. Deindividuation h. Social facilitation i. Group polarization j. Groupthink k. Bystander intervention l. Diffusion of responsibility m. Altruism

i. ii. iii.

Analytical Practical Creative

2. Attributions: a. Social cognition




b. Attribution theory c. Dispositional factors d. Situational factors e. Fundamental attribution error f. Self-serving bias g. Self-fulfilling prophecy h. Actor-observer bias

Interpersonal perception: a. Stereotype b. Prejudice c. Discrimination

d. Scapegoat theory e. Ethnocentrism f. Just-world phenomenon g. Out-group homogeneity h. Contact theory i. Jigsaw classroom

Conformity, compliance, and obedience: a. Conformity b. Compliance c. Foot-in-the-door

d. Reciprocity Attitudes and change:

a. Attitudes


e. Overview of Social Psychological experiments (chart)

b. c.


Mere exposure effect Elaboration likelihood model of attitudinal change (ELM);

i. Central route of persuasion

ii.Peripheral route of persuasion Informational social influence Normative social influence

Unit 6 Review



% OF AP EXAM/class periods to cover


7 – 9 % / 3 days


5-7 % / 2 days

Abnormal Behavior

1. 2.

Abnormal behavior defined by: Causes of abnormal behavior according to perspectives:

a. Psychoanalytic: b. Behavioral: c. Humanistic: d. Cognitive:

e. Biological:

Descriptions of common psychological problems:




Anxiety (general description)

a. Generalizedanxietydisorder

b. Panic disorder c. Phobia

i. Agoraphobia ii.Claustrophobia iii. Acrophobia

d. Obsessive compulsive disorder (anxiety type)

e. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Somatoform disorders (general description)

a. Somatizationdisorder b. Conversiondisorder c. Hypochondriasis

Dissociation (general description) a. Dissociative amnesia

b. Dissociativefugue

c. Dissociative identity disorder 6. Mooddisorders(generaldescription)

a. Major(clinical)depression

b. Bipolardisorder 7. Schizophrenia(generaldescription)/causelinktoDopamine?Other?

a. Phychosis b. Delusion c. Hallucination d. Disorganized schizophrenia e. Catatonic schizophrenia

8. Personality disorders (classified on DSM IV Axis II) categorized into three clusters: a. Odd/eccentric—paranoid,schizoid,schizotypal b. Dramatic/emotionally problematic—histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, and


antisocial c. Chronic fearfulness/avoidant—avoidant, dependent, and obsessive compulsive

*Personality disorders are characterized by persistent patterns of maladaptive and inflexible traits in personality Developmental disorders—disturbances in language and learning, and or motor skills:

a. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) b. Autism c. Anorexia nervosa (note: Categorized as Developmental Disorder) d. Bulimia nervosa

Treatment of Abnormal Behavior

1. Professionals in the treatment of psychopathologies: (include level of education + degrees) a. Psychiatrists

b. Clinical psychologists c. Counseling psychologists

d. Psychoanalysis / Psychotherapy

e. Clinical or psychiatric social workers 2. Treatment of disorders from all the various perspectives. Notes:

3. Therapy/Cause/Goal/Key terms chart