Bone Cancer

By: Adam and Ryan

What is Bone Cancer?

On the more rare side, Bone Cancer is an infectious cell that starts in or around the soft tissue close to a bone. The most common locations are the upper arms and leg bones, but may appear elsewhere in the body. At these locations there may be swelling or pain but that is not always the case. (Gale Virtual Reference) When the cancer starts in one of these locations and do not spread are "primary bone cancer" cells. Also primary bone cancer cells are less common than bone cancer appearing from another tumor because it has spread from another. Because non-spreading tumors are less common this cancer is curable especially if found early. (cancer.gov)

Symptoms

A bone tumor may be painless. Some people have dull, aching pain, and in some cases will minor injury causes a fracture near the tumor.

How Prevalent Is This Cancer

AS said before bone cancer is a rare cancer but there is still a portion of people being affected by this condition. During 2015 already 2970 people have been diagnosed with some form of bone cancer. This breaks into 1640 men and 1330 women.The less fortunate part of these statistics means there have been 1490 deaths from bone cancer this year. (cancer.net) Primary bone cancer cells can be broken down into a few subgroups. Chondrosarcoma is responsible for 40% of diagnoses and mainly occurs in people over 40 with a higher risk over time. The second largest subgroup is Osteosarcoma, 28% of diagnoses are classified by this. Mainly occuring in people of ages 10-19 or 40 and above in special conditions such as Paget disease. Ewing Sarcoma takes up 8% of all diagnoses and Fibrosarcoma takes 4% and the other groups are very rare. The main difference of these groups are all cancerous tumors in soft tissue but vary on the microscopic level such as osteosarcoma occurs in bone, chondrosarcoma occus in cartilage, and fibrosarcoma occur in fibrous tissues. (cancer.gov)

How Is It Diagnosed

There is no 100% working diagnosis/cure, however they take blood tests to research, and are working on making a diagnosis at this very moment.

The Possible Causes

Bone cancer does not have a single reason for occurring but there are some clear causes for two subgroups of bone cancer. Osteosarcoma is most likely caused by high doses of radiation. Osteosarcoma can also be caused by another tumor coming into the soft tissues around a bound. Ewing's Sarcoma is the most likely to occur on it's own. (Gale Virtual Library) The reason for this occurring is most likely the chromosomes in a cell. Chromosomes are packages of proteins in a cell that also contains the DNA. When the chromosomes are not aligned well Ewing's Sarcoma has a chance of occurring.
Big image

Fig 1. Picture of Osteosarcoma

(James C. Witting) Tumor Education

Cellular and Molecular Level

Treatments and Cures

There are three main ways to treat Ewing's Sarcoma. The first choice is surgery, if that does not work radiation therapy may be used, and in a last effort chemotherapy is the preferred choice to remove the tumor. If surgery is going to be preformed on a tumor then the tumor is removed first, after a bone graph or metal may be used as a new joint. After physical therapy soon follows, then surgery may be required later. (Gale Virtual Library)

Works Consulted

"Bone Cancer Homepage." Bone Cancer. National Cancer Institute, 2008. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.gov/types/bone/bone-fact-sheet>.

"Bone Cancer Home PAge." Bone Cancer. Medline Plus, 22 Oct. 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/bonecancer.html>.

"Bone Cancer Homepage." Bone Cancer. cancer.net, 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/bone-cancer>.

Ewing's Sarcoma. N.p.: n.p., 2010. Human Diseases and Conditions. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX2830200153&v=2.1&u=amhe95753rpa&it=r&p=&sw=w&asid=f3b82463a79d2870b97c73f8839f218c>.

"High Grade Surface Osteosarcoma." Tumor Education. James C. Witting M.D., 2014. Web. 20 Dec. 2015. <http://www.tumorsurgery.org/tumor-education/bone-tumors/types-of-bone-tumors/high-grade-surface-osteosarcoma.aspx>.

Ryan Shipley

Annotation

"Ewing's Sarcoma." Human Diseases and Conditions. Ed. Miranda Herbert Ferrara. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2010. 617-621. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

This scientific article was researched and published into the scientific world showing that the author has a background in this issue. Because this article is scientific and should be informational purposes only there is no bias that would sway a reader’s opinion on the subject. The article is a little old being written in 2010 but the topics being covered those years ago still apply today. There were not many numbers that could conflict with other sources in this article but there was a vast amount of scientific content that when compared to the National Cancer Institute was still true. Overall this source had very good information, was from a credible, database and was ready to give information for this topic.