The Middle Ages

The Medieval Society

Feudalism

Feudalism- the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants were obliged to live on their lord's land and hive him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, nationally in exchange for military protection.

Manorialism/ Manor

Manorialism- an essential element of feudal society, was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the villa system of the late Roman Empire, was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of Central Europe and was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-based market economy and new forms of agrarian contract.


Manor- a large country house with lands; the principal house of a landed estate.

Charlemagne

Charlemagne was a great ruler. He was known as Charles the Great, Charles I, and by some people, even the Father of Europe. He was born in 742 and he died in 814. He was a medieval emperor that helped the church by giving them money, land, and helped protect the pope. He made sure to convert his subjects to Christianity. He ruled most of what are now France and Germany.

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella

In 1469, Ferdinand married Isabella. Several years later, they worked together to form the Spanish Inquisition. The Spanish Inquisition was an organization of priests that looked for and punished anyone in Spain suspected of secretly practicing their old religion. They created the Spanish Inquisition because they wanted to purify Spain by making it to where only Christians could stay there. The way that they did this was at first, telling all heretics to leave Spain, or die. Some left, and others had already owned a business, had a very successful farm, ect. and didn't want to leave, so they converted to Christianity. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella started feeling suspicious about who was truly a Christian. So they threatened them. They ended up killing thousands of people because they weren't truly Christian.

The Black Death

The Black Death was a deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351. It came from central and Eastern Asia. When people from Asia came to trade goods with Europe, they had rats on the boat. Those rats had fleas. The. Fleas jumped off of the rats and bit people that were near. That is how it all started. Then the people who already got bitten by the fleas spread it to others because they didn't have the technology to know about germs and how they spread. They noticed Rosie patches with white rings around them. The white ring showed that the Rosie patches were infected. Soon, the patches started decaying/rotting. Because of the decaying flesh, people started to smell. To take away the stench, they would put flowers in their pockets. Many people died because of this plague. Approximately 21-25 million people just in Europe.

William the Conqueror

William the Conqueror was born in 1027. Since he was an only child, he was able to receive the throne. He was the first Norman king of England. He reigned from 1066 to 1087. He was to son of Robert I. He ordered complications of the Doomsday book. The doomsday book was a survey listing all of the land holders in England along with their holdings.

Advancements

There were many advancements in the Middle Ages such as the cannon, the longbow, and many more. The cannon was used to catapult solid iron balls through the air at a high rate of speed to help with weaponry in war and battles. The longbow was a huge piece of carved wood that was curved to make a bow. The arrows were also made of wood. The bow itself was about 6 feet tall. That was taller than the average soldier. It could shoot and hit a target from approximately 300 feet away.

The Growth of Cities

The population of the cities increased after the Black Death because so many people died. There was so much extra space and so much extra land that was left abandoned when people died. There was no one to take care of it. So other people came in.

The Church

The church was one of the most important parts of the society because it provided for everyone. It helped with weddings and funerals. They provided for the poor. They did ceremonies such as the lords supper, baptism, and baby dedications. They would also provide for and pray for those who were sick. The pope was the head of the church. There were also monks who dedicated their whole life to the church. The monks would pray for about 3-5 hours total every day. Then, they would copy the Bible. The reason that the church could easily access everyone was because everyone lived very close to the church.

The Crusades

The Crusades were a series of battles to overcome the Holy Land. The groups who fought were Christians, Muslims, and a few Jews. They all had good reasoning to want to claim it as their own. There were 4 main crusades. there was the 1st crusade, the 2nd crusade, the 3rd crusade, and the Children's crusade. The 1st crusade was the most effective because the Christians overcame the land. Then they left and the Muslims took the land back. Then the 2nd crusade started. That one didn't take them anywhere. The Muslims still had control of it. Then the 3rd crusade came. It was the same way as the 2nd crusade. The last crusade was the Children's crusade. Parents thought that if children went up there, they may just think they are ordinary children. Not there to fight. But many of the children died on the way there. The remaining children went home. Most of them died on the way back. They died because of complications with sickness, starvation, non-preventable accidents, ect.

Knights

The knights were very important because they were the ones who provided protection for the lords of the land/manors. The lords would be easily accessible if there was no one protecting them and there would be no one to take care of the land if something actually did happen to the lord. Knights were also sent to war to fight in the Crusades, the Hundred years war, and other wars and battles. They had huge armor that could resist a lot of weapons like spears. You had to be very strong to be able to be a knight because the armor was so heavy.