Language Arts 6th Grade

What I have learned this year! By: Bella Hebert

Chapter 1: The Sentence

A sentence is a word group that contains a subject an a verb and that expresses a complete thought.

EX. I ate a hotdog for lunch. (Subject-I) (Verb-Ate)

Subjects

The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about. The complete subject consist of all the words needed to tell whom or what the sentence is about. The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about. The

EX. The girl played volleyball. (Complete subject- the girl) (Simple Subject- Girl)

Predicates

The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject. The Complete Predicate consist of a verb and all the words that describe the verb and its meaning. The Simple subject, or verb, is the main word or word group in the complete predicate.

EX. We went to the beach. (Complete predicate - went to the beach) (Simple predicate - went)

Compound Subject

A Compound Subject consist of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb.

EX. Will Cameron and Lily come on the bowling trip? ( Compound Subject-Cameron and Lily)

Compound Verb

A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject

EX.Linda can play the piano, sing, and dance. (play piano,sing,and dance)

Declarative Sentence

A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.

EX. Sally goes to the doctor. (declarative sentence)

Imperative Sentences

An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.

EX. Put your shoes on. ( imperative sentence)

EX#2. Stop hitting your sister! (strong imperative sentence)

Interrogative Sentences

An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.

Ex. Will it rain today? ( it is a question)

Exclamatory Sentences

An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation mark.

EX. We are going to the park today! (Ends with exclamation point)

Chapter 2 Parts of Speech : noun

A Noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person place or thing.

EX. The girl took out the trash. (noun:girl, trash)

Proper Nouns

A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea and begins with a capital letter.

EX. I want to go to France someday. (Proper noun:France)

Common Mouns

A common noun names any one of a group of persons, places,things, or ideas.

EX. I love that candy. (common noun: candy)

Pronoun

A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.

EX. She is my big sister. (Pronoun: she)

Personal Pronouns

A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking, the one spoken to, or the one spoken about. Personal pronouns have both singular and plural forms.

EX, I gave my paper to you. (personal pronouns: I, my, you)

Reflexive Pronoun

A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and is necessary to the basic meaning of the sentence.

Ex.. WE enjoyed ourselves at her birthday party. (reflexive pronoun: ourselves)

Intensive Pronoun

An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent and is unnecessary to the basic meaning of the sentence.

EX. Josh himself brought the mail to the mailbox. ( intensive pronoun: himself)

Demonstrative Pronuns

A demonstrative pronoun points out a specific person, place, thing, or idea.

EX. Those are very pretty shoes. (demonstrative pronoun: those)

Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named.

Ex.None of the girls knew much about the baseball movie. (indefinite pronoun:none,much)

Interrogative pronouns

An interrogative pronoun introduces a question.

EX. Which one is Annie? (interrogative pronoun:which)

Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.

EX. Who girl, who has a dog named Lily, was playing in the park today. (relative pronoun: who)

Adjectives

An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or pronoun.

EX. I loved that pink flower. (adjective: purple)

Poper Adjectives

A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun and begins with a capital letter.

EX. Did you know that there was a Chinese New Year? (Proper adjective: Chinese)

Demonstrative Adjectives

When this, that, and those modify nouns or pronouns they are called demonstrative adjectives.

EX. I like that brand of cookies. ( demonstrative adjective: that)

Chapter 3 Parts of Speech Overveiw: Verbs

A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being.

Ex. I ran toward the bus. (Verb: ran)

Action verbs

An action verb expresses either physical or mental activity.

Ex. I helped my mom bake cookies. (action verb: bake)

Linking Verbs

A linking verb connects, or links, the subject to the word or word group that identifies or describes the subject.

Ex. She is a author of a famous book! ( linking verb: is)

transitive verb

A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing, or idea.

Ex. Tina entertained the child. ( transitive verb: entertained)

intransitive verb

An intransitive verb tells something about the subject or expresses action without the action passing to a receiver, or object.

Ex. The horse galloped. (intransitive verb: galloped)

adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Ex. He moved swiftly down the hill. (adverb: swiftly)

preposition

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in the sentence.

Ex. I sat beside you. (preposition: beside)

compound prepositions

A compound preposition is a preposition that is made up of more than one word.

Ex. I swam next to you. (compound preposition : next to)

object of the preposition

The object of the preposition is the object in the preposition.

Ex. I have a pile of leaves. (object: leaves)

prepositional phrase

A prepositional phrase is its objects and any modifiers in it.

Ex. I love to go outside on a hot sunny day. (prepositional phrase: on a hot sunny day.)

conjuction

A conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words.

Ex. Do you love movies or shows? (conjunction: or)

interjection

An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.

Wow! What a tall building! (interjection: wow!)

Chapter 4 The phrase and the clause: The phrase

A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.

Ex. in the backyard ( no subject or verb)

Adjective Phrase

A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective phrase.

Ex. Chunks of ice fell from the roof. (adjective phrase: of ice)

Adverb phrases

A prepositional phrase that is used to modify verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called a adverb phrase.

Ex. We walk along the lake every Saturday. (adverb phrase: along the lake)

The clause

A clause is a word group that contains verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as a part of a sentence

Ex. Julia sewed a new dress for her sister. ( the clause : the whole thing)

independent clause

An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.

Ex. Bob left the house quickly, and raced to the car. ( independent clause: Bob left the house quickly)

subordnate clause

A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Ex. We all enjoyed the dinner that dad cooked for us. ( subordinate clause: that dad cooked for us)

adjective clause

An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies and noun or pronoun.

Ex. a cat that has white fur (that has white fur)

adverb clauses

An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or adverb

Ex. Since the toddler was shy, she hid behind her mother. (adverb clause: since the toddler was shy)

sentence structure

A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.

Ex. I love to dance. ( simple sentence: the whole thing)

compound sentence

A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a comma or a connecting word.

Ex. She loves sweets, yet she never buy candy. (compound sentence: ,yet)

complex sentences

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.

Ex. Before Kennedy went swimming, she put on sunscreen. (independent clause: she put on sunscreen, subordinate clause: before Kennedy went swimming.)

Compound complex sentence

A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause is a compound complex sentence.

Ex. I picked up all the leafs and mowed the lawn, while Sandy picked up the trash. (independent clauses: I picked up all the leafs, and mowed the lawn, and subordinate clause: while Sandy picked up trash.)

Chapter 5 complements : A complement

A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb.

Ex. The puppy was sleeping (complement: The puppy was)

Direct Objects

A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.

Ex. I bought my mom a scarf. (direct object: scarf)

Indirect Objects

An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that usually comes between the verb and the direct object. An indirect object tells who or toe what or for whom or for what the action of the verb is done.

Ex. I gave my Dad a present. (indirect object: Dad)

Subject complement

A subject complement is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject.

Ex. The airport appears very busy. (subject complement: busy)

Predicate Nominatives

A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it.

Ex. My brother became an acrobat. (predicate nominative: acrobat)

Predicate Adjective

A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.

Ex. I believe that Jacob is Nigerian. (predicate adjective: Nigerian)

Singular and Plural

Words that refer to one person, place, thing or idea are generally singular in number. Words that refer to more than one person, place, thing, or idea are generally plural in number.

Ex. The girls played with the beach ball. (singular: beach ball) (plural: the girls)

Chapter 6 Agreement: Indefinite Pronouns

A pronoun that does not refer to a definite person, place thing or idea is called an indefinite pronoun.

Ex. Each of the tourists were given a souvenir. (indefinite pronoun: each and was)

Compound Subjects

A compound subject is made up o two or more subjects that are connected by the conjunction and, or, or nor.

Ex. Red and blue are the school's colors. (compound subject: red and blue)

Prounoun and Antecedent

A pronoun usually refers to a noun or another pronoun called its antecedent.

Ex. Feminine: she, her, hers

Masculine: he, him, his

Neuter: it, it ,its

Chapter7 Using Verbs Correctly: Principal Parts of Verbs

The four principal parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past and the past participle.

Ex. I wore that blue dress yesterday.

Regular Verb

A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Ex. I painted a picture yesterday.

Irregular verb

An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some other way than by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Ex. I won the baseball game yesterday.

Tense

The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or the state of being that is expressed by the verb.

Ex. Past Tense: I ate a pie.

Future Tense: I will eat a pie

Chapter 8 using pronouns correctly : Pronoun as subject

The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.

Ex. I walked to school.

Pronoun as predicate nominative

A predicate nominative completes the meaning of a linking verb and identifies or refers to the subject of the sentence.

Ex. The next singer is she.

Pronoun as Direct Object

A direct object completes the meaning of an action verb and tells who or what receives the action of the verb.

Ex. The teacher thanked me for cleaning the classroom.

Pronoun as indirect object

An indirect object may come between and action verb and a direct object.

Ex. Bobby handed me a volleyball.

Pronoun as object of preposition

The object of a preposition is a noun or a pronoun that follows a preposition.

Ex. Sam sat beside us.

Chapter 9 Using Modifiers correctly: comparison of adjectives and adverbs

The different forms or comparison are called degrees of comparison.


Ex. Shawn runs quickly.

Modifiers

The modifiers good and well have different uses.

Ex. The book was better than the movie.

double comparison

A double comparison is the use of both -er and more (or less) or both -est and most (or least) to form a single comparison.

Ex. That was the best movie I have ever seen.

double negatives

Negative words are a common part of everyday speaking and writing. These words include the modifiers no, not, never, and hardly.

Ex. I did not know anything about the test!