Roots of Change

By: Lauren, Rayce, Amanda, Deep

Spice Road-Lauren Lee

The Spice Road was a trade route that travelers would carry cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, and turmeric across to other locations in the world to make a profit.

There were many different countries involved such as India, Europe, Southeast Asia, Egypt, Somalia, Persia, Arabia, and Java.

This happened around the 1400s, and the spices specifically started to hit a boom in about 1453.

The Spice Road trade route gave opportunity to people all over the world to trade their goods and services with other nations. It made other nations more culturally diverse and it began the bridge for cultural and commercial exchanges.

Amber Road-Rayce

The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from 200 BCE-400 CE. Amber was traded in Northern and Southern Europe. By trading the amber, people got the important resources that they needed to complete tasks. The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for trading amber from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Amber was a very important raw material and was transported from the North Sea and Baltic Sea overland by way of the Vistula and Dnieper rivers to Italy, Greece, the Black Sea, and Egypt. As one of the waterways, the road led from Europe to Asia and back, and from northern Africa to the Mediterranean Sea.

The Silk road-Deep

One major country that traded using Silk Road was china. Other countries that also traded and were involved included INDIA, European countries, and Arabian countries. The goods that were traded were gold, ivory, glass, silk, jade, and bronze.

Gold ivory and glass were things that went to china, silk, jade, and bronze were things that were from China. The Silk Road was established in 329 BC and ended in the 7th century. The Silk Road changed how people lived because they created a route that was possible to go on to trade. It opened long-distance, political and economic interactions between the countries and civilizations.

Incense Road-Amanda

The ancient Incense Road was mostly controlled by the Arabs, who brought frankincense and myrrh by camel from South Arabia. Even though the incense road was a really big trade route, there were only two main trades. The incense trade flourished from South Arabia to the Mediterranean. Myrrh and Frankincense are both native to Yemen, Somalia, and the eastern parts of Ethiopia. This trade was crucial to the economy. Frankincense and myrrh trees were seen as a source of wealth by its rulers. The demands for incensed because so many empires wanted them, such as Egypt, Rome and Babylon. This made Arabia one of the oldest trade centers of the world.

China trading with USA-Deep

China trading with USA

The company that I picked was called China Telecom. China Telecom is Americas the largest international service company. The company supplies some of the world's largest and most demanding corporations with advanced data services, wholesale voice and managed which makes billions of dollars in network investments. China Telecom Americas' team has made solutions for companies in a lot of industries, like hospitality, content and media, manufacturing, telecommunications, global consulting and software development. Countries all around the world are involved in this but USA and parts of Asia are one of most. The service is being traded and for that they are getting lots of money from the USA. Change has been brought to the country because now people are getting better service in different parts of the world and at the same time china is making good money for the company and the workers and that also make s the economy in china better so big change has been brought.

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Canada and the United States Trade-Lauren Lee

Canada is the United States number one trading partner in the world.

Canada and the United States trade lots of things such as; mechanical parts, engines, oil, gas, gold, silver, vegetables, and fruits.

The company I picked that trades with the US is the Dodge Car company. This company trades mechanical parts, machines, and engines with the US. This is important because people in the US buy these cars for use and they are trending. The cars are cheaper in the United States than in Canada also because they were made in a different country. This benefits lots of people in the United States because Dodge is a huge company and many citizens drive their cars.

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Mexico and United States Trade-Rayce

Mexico is the third-largest trading partner for the US, and for Mexico, the USA is the first largest trading partner

Mexico resources: Petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber.

Agriculture: Products--corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes, beef, poultry, dairy products, wood products.

Industry: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables.

Services: commerce and tourism, financial services, transportation and communications.

Exports $230 billion

Imports $234 billion

Exports to U.S. $185 billion (80% of total).

Japan Trading with America: Motorola Phones-Amanda

In March 1994 with Japan to open the cellular telephone market in Tokyo. Motorola, which tried unsuccessfully for years to break into this market, provides the bulk of the equipment to build and maintain this system, with sales values in the hundreds of millions of dollars per year. This has not only benefitted America since we have phones and can communicate. It also benefitted Japanese consumers, they now not only have greater choices of phones but also enjoy lower prices for cellular phone services. Initiation and monthly service fees are now one-third the previous rates.

By: Lauren Lee

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Rest in peace all who lost their lives in the 1977 moscow metro bombings.

Oklahoma City Bombing-Amanda

April 19, 1995, an ex-Army soldier and security guard named Timothy McVeigh parked a rented Ryder truck in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City. In the truck there was a powerful bomb made out of a deadly cocktail of agricultural fertilizer, diesel fuel, and other chemicals. It exploded at 9:02 and within moments, a third of the building had been reduced to rubble. Dozens of cars were incinerated and more than 300 nearby buildings were destroyed. 168 people had died, 19 of them being children, with several hundred more people injured. Since this was right after the World Trade Center bombing in New York, the media and many Americans immediately assumed that the attack was Middle Eastern terrorists. Timothy was found April 20th, and was already in jail. He had gotten puller over about 80 miles north of Oklahoma City, the officer noticed a missing license plate and when the officer pulled him over, he found a concealed weapon in the car and was arrested. Agents found traces of the chemicals used in the explosion on his clothes. They learned about Timothy's anger over the events at Waco. They discovered that a friend of McVeigh’s named Terry Nichols helped build the bomb and that another man, and Michael Fortier was aware of the bomb plot. The investigation turned out to be one of the most exhaustive in FBI history.

Genocide- Amanda

Sudan is home to about 6 million people from nearly 100 tribes. Some are nomads, while others are farmers. They are all Muslims. In 1989, General Omar Bashir took control of Sudan by using the military, It was a struggle for political control. Conflicts increased between African farmers and many nomadic tribes. In 2003, two Darfuri rebel movements- the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)- took up arms against the government, complaining about the failure to protect people from attacks by nomads. The government of Sudan responded by unleashing an Arab military known as Janjaweed. Sudanese forces and the military attacked hundreds of villages throughout Darfur. Over 400 villages were completely destroyed and millions of people were forced to leave. The genocide in Darfur has claimed 400,000 lives and displaced over 2,500,000 people. More than one hundred people continue to die each day, that's five thousand per month. The government denies any connection with the Janjaweed. They seem unwilling to address the human rights crisis in the region. March 4, 2009 President Omar al Bashir, became the first president to be indicted by ICC for directing a campaign of mass killing, rape, and pillage against civilians in Darfur.


Background info: In Rwanda there were 2 groups called the Hutus and Tutsis. They were always against each other and they made a boundary between the 2 kinds of people because of political problems. The problem was that one group wanted the leader of Rwanda to be the opposite of the what the other group of people wanted. After that they separated themselves and formed into 2 groups and the Hutus were the bigger people and took more control over the Tutsis.

Causes of conflict: This caused a war between the two but since the the Hutus were dominant about 1,000,000 tutsis and Hutus, but mainly Tutsis died. The Hutus were killing every single Tutsis they could find and were trying to get rid of all.

Who between: Between Hutus and Tutsis but they were all really just African

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Spanish-American War- Deep

Civil wars:

Back ground information- Cuba have always rebelled against Spain since 1895. Soon after the rebellion began, José Martí and General Máximo Gómez landed at beach of Cajobabo, , but after three years of fighting throughout the island, the rebels had only been successful in two provinces which were Oriente and Camagüey. The result of all of this was the Cuba war of independence.

Conflicts: Because of this war there was depression mainly on Cuba, a lot of homes were destroyed and people were displaced. There was also disease that spread through out that killed many soldiers also. Also there was no political peace anywhere so that was also a major conflict.

Who between- This war was between the Spanish and Americans, Cuba was a part of Spain at that time.

Results: At the end Spain was defeated and they soon wanted peace with America.With defeats in Cuba and the Philippines, and both of its fleets surrendered and Spain wanted peace and negotiations were opened between the two parties. After over two months of difficult negotiations, the formal peace treaty, the Treaty of Paris, was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898,and was ratified by the United States Senate on February 6, 1899. The United States gained all of Spain's colonies outside of Africa in the treaty, including the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico. At last peace was settled in the end.

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North and South Korea- Deep

Back ground information-

At one point north and South Korea was just 1 and that was Korea. The division of Korea into South Korea and North Korea was because of the 1945 of the allied victory in World War II, ending the Empire of Japan's 35-year colonial rule of Korea. The purpose was to establish a Korean government which would become free and independent. Though elections were scheduled, the Soviet Union refused to cooperate with United Nations plans to hold general and free elections in the two Korean zones, and because of that, a Communist state was established under Soviet in the north and a pro-Western state was set up in the south.The two superpowers backed different leaders and two states were effectively established.mThe Korean War, which lasted from 1950 to 1953, left the two Koreas separated.

Causes of conflict- After the two separated they became huge enemies and as we know people in North Korea are not allowed to leave and are ruled by a dictator. Since the division of Korea, there have been many instances of infiltration and fighting across the border largely by North Korean agents. A total of 3,693 armed North Korean agents have gone into South Korea between 1954 to 1992, with 20% of these occurring between 1967 and 1968.

Who between- North and South Korea

Results- They are as of now still fighting and they hate each other. They are two whole different states. This had been the result ever since the separation really.

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911 Terrorist Attack- Deep

Background- The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab people to resist the Soviets.In 1996 bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia.

In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel. Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans, and according to bin Laden, Muslim legal scholars, have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries.

Causes of conflict- this caused people to hate all Muslim people right after all of this happened. Even the innocent were sent to prison and bad things were happening to the innocent Muslim people. This conflict affected the whole world and everyone was touched by this.

Who between- this act of terrorism was really between Al-Qaida and the USA

The results- This act of terrorism killed over 3,000 people. This caused a lot of damages and destroyed almost all of the World Trade Center. They have now built a new one.

This changed everything and now they are building a new World Trade Center. People started to change and now they are recovering form all the damages and it's still in our hearts.

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Agriculture has made a huge contribution to the quality of American life. It is not just an industry, it is the foundation of our civilization. Agriculture provides the basic living things we need like the food we eat, the beverages we drink, the clothing we wear, and the materials for our homes. Agriculture also provides us with many of our traditions and values. We celebrate agriculture by attending food festivals and maybe planting gardens. In the United States, consumers are fortunate to have a food supply that is affordable, safe, flavorful, nutritious, and convenient. Thanks to agriculture, we can enjoy a lot of good food.

Examples of how this innovation changed areas, one from each continent:

NORTH AMERICA - A innovation that changed areas in North America was the tractor. It is a multi-tasker depending on what is attached to it that can do two things at once. If there's a plow to dig deep into the soil, then plowing. If the disk implement is attached, it disks. Then the soil may be smoothed with a drag of some type pulled by the tractor. This invention helped farming be much easier and people to work not as hard, the machine does the digging for you.

SOUTH AMERICA - governments in South America have given the responsibility for generating agricultural knowledge and technology to the national agricultural research institutes, or INIAs. Over the years these institutes have produced valuable knowledge and technologies, particularly with regard to the adaptation of plant varieties. A innovation that had helped South America for agriculture was Plasma Water Sanitation System, which uses a process involving oxidation, and UV rays to eliminate contaminants from water which is a major source of disease in underdeveloped areas of the world. The technology, which can purify 35 liters of water in five minutes.

AFRICA-FARMER MANAGED NATURAL REGENERATION is the innovation. The Idea is so that farmers manage natural regeneration, which restores existing trees on drought-stricken land, to improve Africa's harvests. The problem is that places in Africa like Senegal is suffering its third drought of the decade, resulting in reduced crops and inflated food prices. FMNR is an inexpensive way for farmers to make improvements with the resources they already have, increasing millet harvests from 430kg to 750kg a hectare, and saving money on fertilisers, with restored trees producing leaf litter and giving shade to livestock.

EUROPE- The innovation is a crochet knitting machine made with new materials; an online calculator to help companies measure their environmental impact; a new yarn dyeing machine; a testing desk for wear resistance of metal parts; and an online tool to help exchange ideas and inventions. The results mean less energy and water use, lighter and stronger machines, and fewer chemicals wasted.

ANTARCTICA- There is no agriculture in ANTARTICA because if is too cold to grow anything there. Scientist do go to ANTARTICA for research but never for any innovations there.

ASIA- A big innovation in Asia are Dairy Farms. They are important because there are a lot of cows in Asia, especially in India. A dairy farm is a place where business enterprise established for the harvesting of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats. A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or section of a farm that is concerned with the harvesting of milk.

In some countries, especially those with small numbers of animals being milked, the farm may perform the functions of a dairy plant, processing their own milk into salable dairy products, such as butter, cheese, or yogurt. In India a dairy can also be a place that processes, distributes and sells dairy products, or a room, building or establishment where milk is stored and processed into milk products, such as butter. A dairy farm produces milk and a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products. These establishments constitute the global dairy industry, a component of the food industry. These farms help people be able to get milk because people in India drinks lots of milk products so this affects peoples in India's life drastically.

AUSTRALIA- A big innovation in Australia is called a Aquifer. An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well. This is very big for Australia because Australia is a dry place and most of it is deserts. The Jandakot Mound, or Jandakot Groundwater Mound, is an unconfined aquifer in south-western Western Australia. It supplies about 40% of Perth's drinking water. Its highest point lies about 18 km south of Perth’s central business district. It stretches from the Swan River in the north to the Serpentine River in the south, It contains an estimated 4 200 gigalitres of fresh water, and the annual recharge can reach 76 GL. It contributes 9 GL annually to Perth’s municipal supply of drinking water and is also heavily used for private supplies.


Cambodian Genocide was from 1975-1978. It was Khmer Rouge's attempt to nationalize and centralize the peasant farming society of Cambodia virtually overnight. This resulted in the gradual devastation of over 25% of the country’s population in just three short years.

Opium has been known in China since the 7th century and for centuries it was used for medical purposes. The Opium Wars, comprise the First Opium War from 1839 to 1842 and the Second Opium War from 1856 to 1860. These were the disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire.

16th Century Catholics and Protestants led to the creation of new national Protestant churches. The largest of the new churches groupings were the Lutherans and the Reformed churches. It also influenced the Church of England decisively after 1547 under. There were many smaller bodies such as the Free Christians, as well.

Air India Flight 182 was an Air India flight operating on the Montreal–London–Delhi route. On 23 June 1985, the aircraft operating on the route was blown up by a bomb at an altitude of 31,000 feet. It crashed into the Atlantic Ocean while in Irish airspace.

A total of 329 people were killed, including 268 Canadians, 27 British citizens and 24 Indians.The incident was the largest mass murder in Canadian history, and the deadliest aviation disaster to occur over a body of water. It is also the worst disaster in Indian aviation history, and worst aviation disaster in Irish territory.

Medicine- Rayce

Medicine is the field of applied science related to the art of healing by diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness in human beings.

Medicine is traded throughout counties in the world.

North America uses pain killers such as penicillin to reduce pain like headaches and other pains.

Europe uses Hydrocodone for pain so that they can reduce pain in the country. Asia: swine flu vaccine because they are around a lot of animals and this disease is very common so they need to prevent it.

Africa: Malaria vaccine because they need to prevent this common disease.

South America: malaria vaccine because there a lot of bugs that carry this disease so they need to prevent it

Australia: rabies vaccine because there are a lot of wild animals and the need to stop the outbreak of rabies