Mining and Fracking

By: Amanda Ferlisi & Jordan Efken

Terms to Know

Fracking - The process of drilling or the injection of fluid into the ground.


Surface Mining - A method of mining that is used to take out minerals and metals near the surface of the Earth.


Subsurface Mining - A method of mining where the extraction of resources takes place hundreds or thousands of feet underneath the Earth's surface.


Surface is different from subsurface mining because surface mining takes place near the surface of Earth where subsurface mining takes place far below the surface.

Surface Mining

Strip - Large layers of dirt and rock are taken from the Earth, usually to take coal.


Open-pit - A form of surface mining where a pit is created to take our minerals and metals from the Earth.



Mountain Top Removal - A form of surface mining that involves the mining of the inside of a mountain by removing land, usually for coal.

Subsurface Mining

Slope - A form of mining by using a sloped access shaft that travels toward materials.


Drift - The working of coal seams which is an underground mine with entry above water level and generally on the slope of a hill.


Shaft- A method of taking out a tunnel from the top down where there is no entry point to the bottom.

How Does Fracking Work?

Fracking begins far underneath Earth's surface. Certain rocks like shale contains gas and oils. We can drill down into Earth's surface and make a 90 degree turn and push fracken fluid through holes in the drill and cracks surrounding rock to excavate the resources.
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Effects of Fracking

Fracking could eventually contaminate water with different carcinogens. Also, the amount of methane in drinking-water wells are 17 times higher than normal wells.