Recombinant DNA

Morgan Kupchick

What is rDNA ?

Recombinant DNA is an artificially made DNA strand that is formed by the combination of two or more gene sequences.

What is plasmid and how does it relate to rDNA?

Plasmids are molecules of DNA that are found in bacteria. Plasmids are used to help create rDNA and be a vessel in the process of creating the rDNA.

How is rDNA Created?

What is rDNA and how does this technology work? Recombinant DNA is a DNA sequence formed by the combination of two non-homologous DNA molecules. The basic procedure is to extract and cut up DNA from a donor genome into fragments, and allow them to insert themselves into small replicating DNA molecules. This cloning allows the amplification Md discovery of a specific DNA segment from a complex DNA sample such as a genome. There are 3 types of recombinant DNA and benefits of the procedure. This technology allows fragments of DNA from any genome to be inserted into vector DNA molecules.

Transformation: What is the first step to this process? The donor organism (organism under study) will donate their DNA for the analysis. The DNA will be extracted and cut up, and will insert themselves individually into small DNA molecules like plasmids. Plasmids are molecules of DNA that are found in bacteria. The second step is to insert the vector (molecule that went into the plasmid) into a host cell. This process is called transformation.

Non Bacterial Transformation: How does this work? This process is very similar to transformation. The difference between the two is Non- Bacterial doesn't use bacteria (like E.Coli) for a host. The DNA is injected directly into the nucleus of the cell that is being transformed. The host cells are then bombarded with high velocity micro projectiles, cloning the DNA.

Phage Introduction: Is it transformation? Phage introduction is the process of transfection (the equivalent of transformation). The only difference is that a phase is used instead of bacteria. The recombinants that are created are identified mainly by differences in the recombinants. Differences in the non-recombinants can also be found by using various selection methods.

Why is rDNA technology even important? Recombinant DNA has gained a lot of importance, and will get even more important as the 21st century goes on. rDNA is believed to soon be able to help with better crops, recombinant vaccines, production of insulin, production of clotting factors, etc. The technology is important because it enables the creation of copies of genes, and the insertion of foreign genes into other organisms to give them new traits. It's an important tool to agriculture, and will improve a lot in the future.

Why is rDNA important and How does it affect society?

  • rDNA technology allows the creation and manipulation of DNA sequences that come from different sources and or species
  • Recombinant DNA is likely to have profound effects on society including better health through disease diagnosis, and improved drug and pharmaceutical production
  • Recombinant DNA holds lots of promise for the future, but is a challenging field. There are concerns wether it will help mankind or further hinder it
  • rDNA is important because it can help replace defective genes with healthy ones to cure diseases or make recombinant drugs like human insulin
  • rDNA has many uses in different places such as doctors offices, laboratories, and even pet shops to genetically modify things to fit our needs

Controversies of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

There are many controversies against rDNA technology. Many are Pro- GMO (genetically modified organisms) and many are against it. So, what are the pros and cons of Recombinant DNA Technology and Research.


rDNA technology has come to help us with many things we use today like insulin, Hepatitis B vaccine, and resistant crops. There are no huge differences between GMO foods, and non-GMO foods to suggest that it's causing harm. It seems to help us out a lot and Recombinant DNA research should continue.

Anti- GMO:

rDNA technology should go away, and there should be no more research done. GMO are crossing gene barriers and are not natural breeds. Modifying crops could further hurt the environment, and kills things it wasn't intending to kill such as butterflies. Insects could grow resistant to these as well, becoming even more aggressive then before. Recombinant DNA should quit it's use because it isn't natural and is harming the environment.

My Opinion:

I thinks that both sides are valid points, but I'm in the middle. rDNA has helped us in many ways concerning medicine and disease wise, and hasn't hurt our physical health. It also has harmed the land and caused unnecessary animals/insects to die. I think there are definitely pros and cons to Recombinant DNA, but I am neither Pro GMO or Anti GMO.

Transgenic Animals

What is a transgenic animal?

A transgenic animal is an animal that has a foreign gene placed deliberately inside their genome.

What were the first transgenic animals available to the American public?

The first animals sold to the public are called GloFish. You can find them in almost any pet store now for a cheap price. These fish have been genetically modified to glow under fluorescent lights and have become known for this trait.

How does this relate to rDNA?

This relates to rDNA because rDNA was used to create them! They were genetically modified with different genes that gave them the trait to flow under fluorescent lights. Without the use of Recombinant DNA, these fish simply would not be able to do this.

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APA Citations

Lodish, H. (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2016, from

Dephoff, J. (n.d.). Importance of Recombinant DNA. Retrieved April 04, 2016, from

Genes Affect Culture; Culture Affects Genes." Psychology Today. Web. 05 Apr. 2016.

Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 05 Apr. 2016.

The Basics of Recombinant DNA." An Introduction to Recombinant DNA. Web. 05 Apr. 2016.

"Genetically Modified Food (GMO) - Pros and Cons." Carrington. 2013. Web. 05 Apr. 2016