The Industrial Revolution

Adreesh Roy, 4th

What factors enabled Britain to gain the early lead in the industrial revolution?

One reason Britain had a lead in the Industrial Revolution was because they controlled not only the seas, but the trade that was occurring within them. From such a trade network, they also improved transportation networks and made the transportation of goods easier. It didn’t stop there; transportation was further improved by networks of roads and canals. They also had their own resources, coal and iron, that their industry depended on for power. Great Britain was also already a world power and they were isolated from others. This means that there were not many wars happening at the time to distract them from focusing on developing their industry.

Summarize how inventions in the cotton industry illustrate the development of the Industrial Revolution.

Before the Industrial Revolution, the cotton industry was filled with big plantations along with small farms laboring for long work-days to harvest a good amount of the crop. This all changed though when new inventions were introduced to the market. There was a huge increase in productivity that transformed the cotton industry. Eli Whitney's cotton gin was the first tool to separate cotton fibers from their seeds and was also improved upon as it became more popular. As a result of this invention, cotton production doubled, along with the demand for it. The plantation owners lived in luxury, and with so much going on at the plantations, they also owned slaves.

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Population: How did population pressures have an impact on disease, mortality rates, migration, and living standards?

During the Industrial Revolution, many, many migrated to America, and a good majority of them didn’t want to. These groups included African slaves and Europeans leaving home to start afresh in America. Some other countries affected by the revolution early on include Britain, Germany, Belgium, and France. Because of birth control/contraception was introduced, the mortality rate and death rates were lowered; this was also due to improved medicine. Disease spread fast and easily as a result of close proximity of workers in the factories. Overall, the standard of living during this time period increased greatly because of improved forms of transportation, medicine, and an improvement in sanitation.

Capitalism: Please explain the mechanisms that drive capitalism.

A capitalist economy is one in which individual households and businesses are in charge of the economy. These small or big businesses make decisions such as which goods and services will they provide, how much of a product will they make, and who they will employ. During the Industrial Revolution, the cheaper goods were mass produced. The high price of industrialization resulted in the formation of large corporations in which people invested their money. Capitalism grew steadily due to finance markets expanding and people selling labor to the factory owners.

Spread of Industrialization: Please explain the global effects of Industrialzation especially in Japan and Russia. How did government officials in both countries promote Industrialization?

A Tsarist government promoted industrialization in Russia. Russia also contributed to the Revolution by giving half of the world's oil, along with a lot of iron. Industrialization in Japan was also promoted by the government. Japan opened institutes and universities and established their modern industries. Finally, spread to places such as India, Egypt, Canada, Central America, and South America. With the spread of industry to several places around the world also came the spread of the tolls that come with it such as pollution that was a result of the fumes from the many machines.
What Industrialization means to me.

Bibliography

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