APA Style (American Psychological Association) general format
Formatting the paper
Double-spaced 12-point font (Times New Roman recommended)
1" margins on all sides
8.5 x 11" paper
Formatting the title page
SHORTER TITLE IN CAPS AT UPPER LEFT OF TITLE PAGE AND ON ALL OTHER PAGES
Title in Upper and Lower Case Letters in the Center of the Page's Upper Half
Authorfirstname Middle I. Lastname
Red Creek High School
THIS IS WHERE THE SHORTENED TITLE GOES (with page number at right margin) 2
The abstract is a summary of your research. The title of this page is not to be in bold nor
underlined. It should be in upper and lower-case letters. The shortened title should appear
on this and all other pages as well.
author's last name, year of publication and page number in parentheses, like this
(Witherell, 2017, p. 22). If you quote the same source again without mentioning another
in between, simply cite the page number (p. 37).
"Direct quotes should be in quotation marks," (Witherell, 2017)
Indent: Long quotes should be indented from the left margin so that they stand out
Indent: from the rest of the body of your paper. They should be double-spaced, just as
Indent: the rest of your paper is, and have the identifying information of the author at
Indent: the end. (p. 233)
- The title of this page should say only References, and should bold, but not underlined.
Just as the other pages do, it should have the shortened title at the upper left and the
page number at the upper right of the page.
- The entries should be arranged alphabetically by the author's last name, followed by the author's first and middle initials (if used in the original source) - do not use full first names.
- If there are multiple authors for one citation, list up to twenty, in the order in which they
appear in the book, article, etc.
- All citations should be in the hanging indentation format, where the second line of the
citation begins five spaces in from the left margin, while the first line begins at the left
margin. Sample page:
SHORTENED TITLE IN ALL CAPS with the page number at the right margin like this 11
Richardson, R. (1988). Death, dissection and the destitute. New York, NY: Penguin.
Stroberg, Wylie, & Schnell, Santiago. (2017, December). On the origin of membrane
Indent: bound organelles, and their physiological function. Journal of Theoretical Biology,
Note: For an online article with no author, use the title as the first word of your citation. If the article has a digital object identifier, use that instead of the URL.
Ribosomes. Nucleic Acids Research, 35(18), 608 - 693.
Online sources are similarly structured, and should include a DOI (digital object identifier) if one is found with the article. Do not use the phrase "retrieved from" if you have a DOI.
If there is no DOI, references for online sources should include the information above as well as "retrieved from" followed by the URL. (The quotation marks should not appear in your citation.)
If your journal article has a volume number and an issue number, the volume number follows the journal title and the issue number appears in parentheses after the volume number, as in the example above for the article entitled Ribosomes. Those with a volume and issue number sometimes do not have a date of publication in the citation.
For published books, only the publisher is needed. (Do not use city and state of publication, as was required in APA 6). Also note that article titles are not in quotations, but book titles and journal titles are in italics.