Citation Guide

APA Style

APA Style (American Psychological Association) general format


Title Page


In-text citations

Reference Page

Formatting the paper


Double-spaced 12-point font (Times New Roman recommended)

1" margins on all sides

8.5 x 11" paper

Formatting the title page


Title in Upper and Lower Case Letters in the Center of the Page's Upper Half

Authorfirstname Middle I. Lastname

Red Creek High School

Abstract Page

THIS IS WHERE THE SHORTENED TITLE GOES (with page number at right margin) 2


The abstract is a summary of your research. The title of this page is not to be in bold nor

underlined. It should be in upper and lower-case letters. The shortened title should appear

on this and all other pages as well.

In-text citations

When you use an idea or quote from a source, give credit to the source by inserting the

author's last name, year of publication and page number in parentheses, like this

(Witherell, 2017, p. 22). If you quote the same source again without mentioning another

in between, simply cite the page number (p. 37).

"Direct quotes should be in quotation marks," (Witherell, 2017)

Indent: Long quotes should be indented from the left margin so that they stand out

Indent: from the rest of the body of your paper. They should be double-spaced, just as

Indent: the rest of your paper is, and have the identifying information of the author at

Indent: the end. (p. 233)

Reference Page

  • The title of this page should say only References, and should bold, but not underlined.

Just as the other pages do, it should have the shortened title at the upper left and the

page number at the upper right of the page.

  • The entries should be arranged alphabetically by the author's last name, followed by the author's first and middle initials (if used in the original source) - do not use full first names.

  • If there are multiple authors for one citation, list up to twenty, in the order in which they

appear in the book, article, etc.

  • All citations should be in the hanging indentation format, where the second line of the

citation begins five spaces in from the left margin, while the first line begins at the left

margin. Sample page:

SHORTENED TITLE IN ALL CAPS with the page number at the right margin like this 11


Richardson, R. (1988). Death, dissection and the destitute. New York, NY: Penguin.

Stroberg, Wylie, & Schnell, Santiago. (2017, December). On the origin of membrane

Indent: bound organelles, and their physiological function. Journal of Theoretical Biology,

Indent: 437.

Note: For an online article with no author, use the title as the first word of your citation. If the article has a digital object identifier, use that instead of the URL.

Ribosomes. Nucleic Acids Research, 35(18), 608 - 693.

Indent: doi:10.1093/nar/gkm658

Online sources are similarly structured, and should include a DOI (digital object identifier) if one is found with the article. Do not use the phrase "retrieved from" if you have a DOI.

If there is no DOI, references for online sources should include the information above as well as "retrieved from" followed by the URL. (The quotation marks should not appear in your citation.)

If your journal article has a volume number and an issue number, the volume number follows the journal title and the issue number appears in parentheses after the volume number, as in the example above for the article entitled Ribosomes. Those with a volume and issue number sometimes do not have a date of publication in the citation.

For published books, only the publisher is needed. (Do not use city and state of publication, as was required in APA 6). Also note that article titles are not in quotations, but book titles and journal titles are in italics.

Works Cited (in MLA format)

Seas, Kristin, & Brizee, Allen. "APA Style Workshop." Purdue Online Writing Lab, 13 May 2016, Accessed 10 Oct. 2017.