By Chloe Herbert
While tensions between the two countries begin to rise, President James K. Polk sends dimplomat James Slidell to try and smooth things out. Mexican officials refuse to speak with him. General Taylor in return leads his troops across the Rio Grande. When Taylor refuses to move, the two sides clash, and American blood is shed on American soil. President Polk declares war.
Meanwhile, the 500 Americans and 12,000 Californios living in California begin to clash. The last straw is drawn when the Americans stole horses intended for the Mexican military. The Americans then declare California an independent nation in what they call the Bear Flag Revolt.
Finally, on September 14, 1847, Mexico City falls after hours upon hours of fierce fighting. The two nations both agree to the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ending the war and giving the U.S. much of Mexico's Northern Territory. Then the Mexicans agree to the Gadsden Purchase, giving America southern Arizona and New Mexico in exchange for $10 million.