Menstrual Cycle

Haleigh Bauguess

Menstrual cycle definition

The process of ovulation and menstruation in women and other female primates.
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Follicle Stage

Follicle stage:

Follicle stimulation hormone is secreted from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland on day 5 of the menstrual cycle.

The the FSH is circulated to an ovary in the bloodstream, when it reaches the ovary it will stimulate many follicles but only one matures.

As the follicles grow in size an egg cell begins to mature inside the follicle, as it grows it fills with estrogen.

Lasts about 10 days
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Ovulation Stage

When the concentration of the estrogen in the female bloodstream becomes too high, it causes the pituitary gland to stop FSH secretion.

At this point there are 3 different hormones circulating in the female blood stream.

Around 14 days of the menstrual cycle this hormonal combination somehow stimulates the mature follicle to break, when the follicle ruptures a mature egg cell is released (ovulation).
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Corpus Luteum Stage or Luteal Phase

After ovulation LH stimulates the cells of the ruptured follicle to divide quickly.

The corpus luteum secretes a hormone called progesterone which helps to maintain the continued growth and thickening of the endometrium. So if an embryo happens to plant itself into the uterine lining it can be maintained.

Lasts about 14 days.


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Menstruation Stage

If fertilization does not occur the progesterone reaches a level in the blood stream that inhibits further LH secretion.

As the progesterone layer decreases the lining of the endometrium becomes thinner and eventually breaks down.

The extra layers of the endometrium, the unfertilized eggs and a small quantity of blood are charged from the female's body.

Around a 28 day cycle.
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Amenorrhea

An abnormal absence of menstruation

Why does it occur:

Pregnancy, menopause and breastfeeding, contraceptives, medications, lifestyle factors, hormonal imbalance, and structural problems.

Causes and symptoms:

Vaginal dryness, voice changes, breast size changes, weight gain or weight loss, acne and increased hair growth.
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Dysmenorrhea

Painful menstruation, typically involving abdominal cramps.

Why does it occur:

Medical problems, uterine contractions

Symptoms:

Lower back pain, cramping, nausea, vomiting

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Premenstrual Syndrome

A group of symptoms that occur in women typically between ovulation and period.

Why does it occur:

Hormone changing, stress, emotional problems

Symptoms:

Mood swings, tender breasts, food cravings, fatigue, inability, depression
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Menopause

A natural decline in reproductive hormones when a woman reaches her 40s or 50s.

Why does it occur:

The woman's number of eggs she was borns with have all been expelled from her body

Symptoms:

Hot flashes, vaginal dryness, sleep disturbances.
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