Understanding Cell Signaling in Alzheimer's
What is Alzheimer's?
progressive, degenerative disorder that attacks the brain's nerve cells, or neurons, resulting in loss of memory, thinking and language skills, and behavioral changes.
It is characterized by the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary, or tau, tangles; the loss of connections between nerve cells (neurons) in the brain; and the death of these nerve cells.
About Alzheimers'" Alzheimer's Foundation. N.p., May 2015. Web. Nov. 2015.
Chromosome 19 is the most commonly related to alzheimer's as it often a carrier of the APOE 4 gene.
Based on which APOE gene a child carries determines the risk of Alzheimers. The higher the number of APOE (1,2,3, or 4) determines the rate of the risk.
Other Affected Chromosomes
Chromsomes 1, 14, 19, and 21 are all known to carry an APOE gene. This means that all are potential threats of Alzheimer's.
"Molecular Mechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease." IFCC. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.
Types of Cell Signaling
Occurs between distant cells and is mediated by hormones released from specific endocrine cells that travel to target cells, producing a slower, long-lasting response.
Occurs by cells responding to their own signal through ligands.
occurs between local cells where the signals elicit quick responses and last only a short amount of time due to the degradation of the paracrine ligand.
Source: Boundless. “Forms of Signaling.” Boundless Biology. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2015
Stages of Signal Transduction Pathway
- Reception: signal is recieved
- Transduction: signal is relayed across cell
- Response: a cellular response occurs
Alzheimer's Effect on Cell Signaling
Ligands and Alzheimers
"Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Protein Kinases in Alzheimers
Protein Kinases and Manipulated responses Due to Alzheimers
Healthy cell signaling may cause an increase in metabolic energy, but with Alzheimer's disease, this signal is delayed or completely stopped and metabolic energies are depleated.