Revolutionary Chaos Of China
By:Amy Foss, Brianna Bosilikwa, Emily Colucci, Lauren Hinton
Nationalists and Communists
The two political forces that were against each other, and were fighting for the right to rule China were Sun Yat-sen's Nationalist Party, and the Chinese Communist Party. The Chinese Communist Party was founded in 1921 by young radicals, and many staff members from Beijing University in the city of Shanghai. Sun Yat-sen was the leader of the Nationalist Party and he needed the expertise that the soviet union could provide. The two parties joined each other to drive imperialists out of China and oppose the warlords. They overlooked their differences for three years and worked together. In 1926, they trained a revolutionary army to head north and take control over China. This was called the Northern Expedition. Sun Yat-sen died in 1925 and the general of the Nationalist Party, Chiang Kai-shek, took his place. In April 1927, Chiang and his party struck against the Communist and their supporters in Shanghai. He killed thousands of people in what is called the Shanghai Massacre. After that, the two groups spilt up. In 1928, Chiang founded a Chinese Republic at Nanjing, and over the next three years, he worked to reunify China.
Communists, Nationalists, and China's Revolutions: Crash Course World History #37
Sun Yat-sen was the original leader of the Nationalist Party.
The Chinese Communist Party
Was founded in 1921 by students and staff members at the Beijing University.
Chiang Kai-shek took over the Nationalist Party after Sun Yat-sen died in 1925.
The Communists in Hiding
After the Shanghai Massacre, most of the Communist leaders went into hiding in the city. People were disconnected and looking for leadership. Some members fled to the Jiangxi Province south of Chiang Jiang. The leader of the Communists Mao Zedong. He was convinced that a Chinese revolution would be driven by the poverty stricken peasants in the countryside rather than by the urban working class. Chiang Kai-shek rooted the Communists out of their urban base in Jiangxi Province in 1931, and most party leaders in Shanghai were forced to flee to Mao's base in south China. Chiang then turned against Mao's stronghold in Jiangxi Province. Chiang's forces outnumbered Mao's but Mao made effective use of guerrilla tactics.
Peoples Liberation Army - Mao Era
The Long March
Chiang's troops used their superior military strength to surround the Communist base in Jiangxi in 1933. However Mao's army broke through the Nationalist lines and began its famous long march. Mao's army traveled on foot, 6,000 miles through mountains, marshes, and deserts to reach the last surviving Communist base in the northwest of China. It was a long and hard journey, but a year later Mao's troops reached safety in the dusty hills of North China. 90,000 troops started on the journey and only 9,000 remained. In the course of the long march, Mao had become the sole leader of the Communist Party.
The Long March - Part 1 (3 of 6)
The New China of Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek had been trying to build a new nation. He had publicly declared his commitment to the plans of Sun Yat-sen, which called for a republican government. In the meantime, the Nationalists would use their dictatorial power to carry out a land-reform program and to modernize industry. Years of neglect and civil war had severely weakened the social, political, and economical fabric of the nation. Chiang Kai-shek was aware of the problem so he tried to build a modern industrial state.
Chiang Kai-Shek: The Chinese Revolution and The Nationalist's Reform.
Essential Question #1
Why do you think China Fought around Jiangxi?
Essential Question #2
Why do you think Chiang Kai-shek decided to change to the urban base?