Types of Mining and Fracking

Jenna and Abraham


Mining that is done above or near the earth's surface


Description: Miners use machinery to strip the soil from the surface to the depth of the mineral they are mining for

Environmental Effects:

  • Land mind cannot grow vegetation
  • Increase erosion due to the layers being remove

Open Pit

Description: Miners use machinery to dig a hole and remove the land until they reach the mineral they are mining for (similar to strip mining)

Environmental Effects:

  • The processing of the mineral produces toxic waste which is pumped to near by lakes and streams

Mountain Top Removal

Description: Mining that starts at the top of a mountain and continues downward to excavate mineral within the mountain

Environmental Effects:

  • Human changes of the topography
  • Creation of man made mountains
  • Destruction of existing mountain
  • Increase erosion


Mining that is done deep beneath the earths surface or deep within mountains


Description: A diagonally shaft drilled into the side of a mountain or the ground in which miners can go to extract the specific mineral they are mining for

Environmental Effects:

  • May cause an increase in erosion


Description: A horizontal shaft that goes through a mountain or elevated terrain of land in which miners can go into and extract valuable mineral

Environmental Effects:

  • Ecological damage due to increase carbon dioxide release from machinery used to create shaft


Description: A vertical shaft that has the same depth as the mineral being mined which then extends horizontally to where the mineral is located

Environmental Effects:

  • Decrease in top soil creation
  • Relocation of dirt into piles
  • Possible ground water contamination
  • Possible pollution of nearby rivers and lakes


Description: Drilling and injecting fracking fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rock to release natural gas

Environmental Effects:

  • Contamination of near by ground water
  • The waste fluid is left in open air pits to evaporate, releasing harmful VOC's (Volatile Organic Compounds)