Alexia Bush

Biography Of Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud was born on May 6,1856 in Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian Empire. He went to school at the university of Vienna to study to be a scholar psychiatrist. Sigmund was an Austrian neurologist best known for developing the theories of pyschoanalysis. His theories on child sexuality, libido and the ego, were some of the most influential academic concepts of the 20th century.
He passed away on September 23, 1939 in London, England.
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Defense Mechanisms

  • Repression: The complete exclusion from consciousness if anxiety- producing thoughts, feelings, or impulses. Most basic defense mechanism. Example: 3 years after retiring from the military the former soldier can only remember vague details about the war.
  • Displacement: Emotional impulses are redirected toward a substitute person or object, usually one less threatening or dangerous than the original source of conflict. Example: Angered by a coworker , a father spanks his daughter for accidentally spilling her juice.
  • Sublimation: Where sexual urges are re-channeled into productive, non sexual activities. Example: A graduate student works on her essay for 12 hours a day while her husband is away on an extended business trip.
  • Rationalization: Justify ones actions or feelings with socially acceptable explanations rather than consciously acknowledging ones motives. Example: After being rejected by a popular college a student explains that she's glad that she didn't get in because she would rather go to a local and smaller college.
  • Projection: The attribution to ones own unacceptable urges or qualities to others. Example: A married woman who is sexually attracted to a coworker accuses him of flirting with her.
  • Reaction Formation: Thinking or behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable impulses. Example: Adolescent males, threatened by their awakening sexual attraction to girls go out of their way to torment and tease them.
  • Denial: The failure to recognize or acknowledge the existence of anxiety provoking information. Example: An alcoholic refuses to admit that he is addicted to the drug.
  • Undoing: A form of unconsciousness repentance that involves neutralizing for an unacceptable action with a second action. Example: A woman feels bad about cheating on her taxes so she makes a larger then usual donation to her local church.
  • Regression: Retreating to a behavior pattern characteristic of an earlier stage of development. Example: After her parents divorce, a sad ten year old girl refuses to sleep alone in her room so every night she crawls into bed with her mother.
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Psychosexual Stages

1. Oral Stage: Birth to one year.
Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure. Example : Thumb sucking and chewing.

2. Anal Stage: 1 to 3 years.

Gratification comes from bowel and bladder functions. Example: Using the bathroom.

3. Phallic Stage: 3 to 5 years.

Focus on pleasure shifts to the genitals. Sexual attraction for the opposite sex parents begins. Example: Boys have incestuous feelings towards their mothers.

4. Latency: 6 to Puberty.

Pleasure zone is the genitals, coping with incestuous feelings. Example: Starts "exploring" ones self.

5. Genital: Puberty-life.

Maturation of sexual interest. Example : Preforms sexual intercourse.

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Id, Ego and Super ego

Id: Instinctual drives present at birth. Does not distinguish between reality and fantasy. Example: " I want"

Ego: Develops out of the id in infancy. Example: "I will"

Superego: Internalization of society's and parent moral standards. Example: :"I should"

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