Animal Cell- Eukaryotic

By: Kelly Cavan

Organelles

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List of Major and Minor Organelles

Major Organelles:

  • Nucleus
  • Nucleolous
  • Ribosomes
  • Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Golgi
  • Mitochondria
  • Cell Membrane
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Cytosol/Ctyoplasm


Minor Organelles:

  • Centrosome
  • Centriole
  • Peroxisme
  • Secretary Vesicle
  • Vacuole
  • Chloroplast


Organelles Only in Animal Cell:

  • Lysosomes
  • Centrioles

Relationships of Organelles

The organelles inside the animal cell work together to make the cell function as a whole. Many of the organelles function only when other parts are there or are the reason others can function at all. The cell is an interconnected system that relies on parts of itself to complete the tasks it needs to do. Without the relation of the organelles, the cell could not function like it does.


Examples of Interrelated Organelles:


Major Organelles:

  • Nucleolus- The nucleolus is inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes in the the cell which take position in the Endoplasmic Reticulum where they are used in protein synthesis.
  • Ribosomes- Ribosomes are made of two parts, large and small subunit, that are used in protein synthesis. RNA from the nucleus is moved through the ribosomes where amino acid molecules are added to lengthen the protein chain.
  • Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum- Smooth E.R. is used to produce hormones and other secretary products. Different functions can take place inside the Smooth E.R. depending on the cell type, lipid and steroid synthesis, breakdown of lipid toxins, and calcium release. Rough E.R. contains ribosomes which give it the "rough" look that have proteins synthesized by the ribosomes collected for transportation throughout the cell.
  • Golgi- The Golgi packages macromolecules to be transported around the cell. Also, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and secretary vesicles are packaged in the membrane- bound vesicles in the Golgi apparatus.
  • Cytosol/Cytoplasm- The cytosol is the "soup" where organelles reside and is the side for cellular metabolism. The cytosol is full of proteins that control the metabolism. The cytoplasm is the term for the cytosol and the organelles suspended in the cytosol.


  • Minor Organelles:

  • Centrosome- The centrosome is where microtubles are produced. In cell division, the centrosome divides the cell where centrioles replicate it. The result of this is two centrosomes, each with a pair of centrioles.
  • Vacuole- Vacuoles play a role in cellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products. Vacuoles store nutrients and waste products, increase cell size, and act like a lysosome.
  • Organelles Only in Animal Cell:

  • Lysosomes- Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for cellular digestion. Lysosomes are released into the vacuole to kill and digest bacteria.



The organelles listed above show how either they help produce and transport items throughout the cell organelles or rely on other organelles to either function or produce what they need to help the cell.



Function of the Cell

Individual Functions of Organelles


Major Organelles:

  • Nucleus- The nucleus, considerably the most important organelle, is responsible for providing the cell with DNA, which gives the cell its characteristics. Cells are different because of genes, which is a result of the DNA in the cell.
  • Nucleolus- The nucleolus is inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes in the the cell which take position in the Endoplasmic Reticulum where they are used in protein synthesis.
  • Ribosomes- Ribosomes are made of two parts, large and small subunit, that are used in protein synthesis. RNA from the nucleus is moved through the ribosomes where amino acid molecules are added to lengthen the protein chain.
  • Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum- Smooth ER is used to produce hormones and other secretary products. Different functions can take place inside the Smooth E.R. depending on the cell type, lipid and steroid synthesis, breakdown of lipid toxins, and calcium release. Rough E.R. contains ribosomes which give it the "rough" look that have proteins synthesized by the ribosomes collected for transportation throughout the cell.
  • Golgi- The Golgi packages macromolecules to be transported around the cell. Also, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and secretary vesicles are packaged in the membrane- bound vesicles in the Golgi apparatus.
  • Mitochondria- The mitochondria provide the energy for the cell to move, divide, produce secretary products, and contract. Food, or sugar,inside the mitochondria combine with oxygen to produce a primary energy source for the cell.
  • Cell Membrane- Proteins inside the cell membrane are responsible for receptors of odors, tastes, and hormones.
  • Cytoskeleton- The cytoskeletyon is the organelle that helps the maintain its shape. Also, the locomotion and muscle contraction could not be done without the cytoskeleton.
  • Cytosol/Cytoplasm- The cytosol is the "soup" where organelles reside and is the side for cellular metabolism. The cytosol is full of proteins that control the metabolism. The cytoplasm is the term for the cytosol and the organelles suspended in the cytosol.


Minor Organelles:

  • Centrosome- The centrosome is where microtubles are produced. In cell division, the centrosome divides the cell where centrioles replicate it. The result of this is two centrosomes, each with a pair of centrioles.
  • Centriole- A centriole is a ring of nine groups of fused microtubles that are part of the cytoskeleton. Two centrioles are arranged so they are parallel to one another.
  • Peroxisome- Peroxisomes protect the cell from toxic hydrogen peroxide.
  • Secretary Vesicle- Cell secretions are packaged in secretary vesicles at the Golgi apparatus, which are then transported to the cell surface for release.
  • Vacuole- Vacuoles play a role in cellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products. Vacuoles store nutrients and waste products, increase cell size, and act like a lysosome.


Organelles Only in Animal Cell:

  • Lysosomes- Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for cellular digestion. Lysosomes are released into the vacuole to kill and digest bacteria.
  • Centriole- A centriole is a ring of nine groups of fused microtubles that are part of the cytoskeleton. Two centrioles are arranged so they are parallel to one another.


Animal Cell Function

All living things are composed of cells. The cell is a unit that all living things have, but cells differ from one to another. Organisms can be unicellular or multicellular, with multicellular (such as humans) being the most common.The functions of plant and animal cells are similar, but the structure of the two make them break off into two different categories. All cells are protected by a cell membrane, and even an additional cell wall, and have organelles that make up the cell's parts and functions. Organelles are needed to perform different tasks that keep the cell working and alive. The cell organelles function together as a unit and form tissue, muscles, organs, and systems. These cells carry out all the actions in coordination with the other cells and help the organism survive.The cell is a building block for all living things, and contain DNA information that combines with other cells to create the genes and DNA for the organism. Cells function in many ways, with creating DNA, forming tissue, carrying out specific functions (such as transporting organelles, providing energy, and more), undergo viruses and problems in the organism, and have varying life spans from one cell to the next. Each cell is different, but are all work together to help the system or organism function and survive.


Skin Cell

The skin cell is a type of animal cell that has a main function of protecting and providing moisture to the internal parts of the body. Also, the skin cell is needed to protect the body from germs, which can cause sickness and even death to the organism. Skin cells, especially on the human body, are everywhere on the body and shed every day. The amount of skin cells on the body is impossible to comprehend, and rebuilds after it has been shed. The skin cell is essential in the protection of the body, and is a great example of how cells come together to form specific and important tasks in the organism.