Mining and Fracking

By: Amelia Firestone and Eliza Martin


The first type of mining is surface mining, which is where people strip away the surface of the land and expose soil, which leads to great amounts of weathering and erosion. The three types of surface mining are strip mining, open pit mining, and mountain top removal. Strip mining is the removal of rock that exposes layers of sedimentary. Open pit mining is when the dig a pit into the ground to get to the resources underneath. Mountain top removal is a type of strip mining where they remove the tops of mountains to get the resources within them.

The second type of mining is subsurface mining. This is where people go beneath the Earth's surface to access materials down there. The first type is slope mining, where they drill down to create a sloped tunnel rather than a vertical or horizontal tunnel. Shaft mining is when the drill goes deep into the Earth vertically. Drift mining is when the drill out horizontally from a previously existing mine.

These two types of mining are different because surface mining removes the topsoil to access the resources below, while subsurface mining drills into the ground.


Fracking is the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to release natural gas. Fracking uses many resources, and shipping them to the drill sites releases a lot of excess CO2 into the atmosphere. It takes millions of gallons of water to access the natural gas. The chemicals used in fracking fluids are some of the most harmful chemicals out there to people animals, and the environment. These chemicals often leak out and contaminate nearby ground water sources. This contaminated water then enters the water supplies of cities and towns, and will have many detrimental effects on the people who drink it. Quite a bit of the fracking fluid is left in the ground to contaminate drinking water. The fluid that is taken out of the ground is put in pools to evaporate, releasing harmful vapors into the atmosphere.
Big image