Chapter 6: Learning

Operant and Classical Conditioning

What is Learning?

Learning refers to a relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience.

What is Conditioning?

Conditioning involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment.

Operant and Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning- type of learning in which a specific environment acquires the capacity to evoke a behavior that was originally evoked by another environment.


Operant conditioning- Form of learning which behaviors can be controlled by their consequences.

This Diagram is Classical Conditioning

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Unconditioned stimulus: Person hitting, or action of hitting dog.

Conditioned stimulus: Sunglasses, or person putting on or wearing sunglasses.

Unconditioned response: Dog flinching or cowering, elevated HR, eyes widen, gets scared from being hit.

Conditioned response: Dog flinching or cowering, elevated HR, eyes widen, gets scared from seeing sunglasses.

Trial: Process of putting on sunglasses and conditioning the dog.

Neutral Stimulus: Sunglasses before slap.

Diagram of Types of Operant Conditioning Processes

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Negative reinforcement: Enforcing behavior by taking away and unpleasant stimulus.

Positive reinforcement: Enforcing a behavior by rewarding.

Schedule of reinforcement: The order in which you enforce behavior, for example, putting sunglasses on directly before hitting dog, or giving a dog a treat directly after they perform the wanted task, like siting, or making someone give money directly after they swear.

PUNISHMENT

A swear jar is a good example of punishment, whenever someone swears, they have to put a dollar in the jar. This is taking away money, which is something pleasant, and decreases the behavior of swearing.

Stimulus Generalization

This is when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original.

STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION

Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.