1750-1914 The European Movement

Europeans and other countries had a major impact in this era

Taiping Rebellion

A civil war erupted in China from 1850 to 1864. It was fought between the Machu led Qing dynasty and the Christian millenarian movement of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace. It began in the southwest providence of Guangxi. It was fought in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anghui, and nearby countries. It was because the local officials launched a champaign of persecution against the God Worshipping Society.

Opium Wars

The two Opium Wars were between China, commissioner Lin and western countries. They were between 1839 and 1842, and 1856 and 1860. The first was between Great Britian and China. China had limited the supply of opium, so the British began smuggling it. The attacks began because people were becoming addicted to the opium. Within a few years, a treaty was made. Then he second war began, this time over an allegedly illegal Chinese search of a British ship. Another treaty solved this issue.

Boxer Uprising

On November 2, 1899-September 7, 1901, a Chinese organization called the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of western and Japanese influence in northern China. They were anti-foreign and anti- Christian, leading to an eventual Boxer war.

1793 Chinese Reject Trade

In 1637, Captain Wendell successfully landed at Canton, China, where he would ask for open trade with The Chinese on behalf of the East India Company. He was then forced to leave by Chinese officials who denied him open trade. It was not until 1672 when the English East India company secured a trading post in Taiwan, with admiral Perry's help.

Russo-Japanese War

The war was fought between the Russian empire and the empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. It lasted a year, 1904-1905. The Japanese saw the Russian threat of expansion as a reason to go to war. The Japanese navy opened hostilities by attacking the Russian fleet at port Arthur. Tsar Nicholas kept the Russian in war until the end, because he had high hopes of winning. This also caused famine and rebellion.

Tanzimat Reforms

From 1838-1876, the Tanzimat, a series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire brought culture, education, and religion more in line with westerners. Everything became western. The military uniform was westernized as well as government and education. This was the beginning of the end of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of modern Turkey.

Sino-Japanese War

The Sino Japanese war was between Japan and China over supremacy in Korea. It was when China began full scale resistance to the expansion of Japanese influence in its territory that the war began in 1937-1945. It was fought in Taiwan, Korea, and the Yellow Sea. Japan exited the war as a major world power and a winner. However, Japan would eventually annex Korea in a treaty.

Unequal Treaties

The series of treaties signed during the19th and 20th century were very unequal. The Qing dynasty in China and the late Tokugawa Japan signed these treaties with western powers. They suffered great military defeat by the foreign powers and there was a threat of military action by those powers.

Self strengthening movement

In 1861-1895, institutional reforms were occurring in China. The Qing dynasty's Feng Guifen initiated the reforms after a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers. This movement attempted to adapt western institutions and military innovations to Chinese needs.

Napoleon Invades Egypt

In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt. He had hoped to cut off British communications with India, where colonies were very valuable. At this point, Egypt was part of the young Ottoman Empire.

Young Turk Takeover

The young Turks were a coalition of various reform groups that led a movement against Abdülhamid II of the Ottoman Empire. This culminated the establishment of a constitutional government. After the young Turks took over, they promoted the modernization of the Ottoman Empire.

Chinese Revolution of 1911

In October of 1911, a successful revolt by a group of revolutionaries took place against the Qing dynasty. A republic was then created. Before this, China was considered "weak" and "backward." Floods and famine ultimately caused this revolt that would completely change the government of China.

The Sick Man of Europe

The Ottoman Empire was the sick man of Europe, because it was experiencing a time of economic difficulty. The phrase was given by Tsar Nicholas. The empire was failing ecomonically and had lost a lot of territory during a few disastrous wars in the 19th century.

Sultan Abd Al-Hamid II

Al-Hamid, 1842-1948, was a very political man. He was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and the last one to exert autocratic ruling that was successful. He delayed the liberal movement for a while. He also tried to better the economy because of society being in a state of unrest, but revolts and rebellions still took place.

Informal Empires

An informal empire is a sphere of influence that is developed by and empire. Often, they have a lot of influence over a region or country that is not a formal colony in the empire. There is also an extension of commercial, strategic or military interests of the empire.

Tokugawa Japan

In 1603-1868, Japan was ruled by the Tokugawa shogunate and a few hundred daimyo. During this time, there was economic growth, strict social order, isolationism, and an interest in the arts. Society was sustainable and self-sufficient. It all ended with the Meiji restoration.

Meiji Restoration

This was a series of events that restored the practical imperial rule to Japan. The events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Japanese ruler, Meiji. It ended the shogunate that happened directly before it. The goals were expressed under Charter Oath.

Ethiopian defeats Italy

The Battle of Adwa, a military clash between Ethiopia and Egypt, occurred in 1896. Italy had attempted to build an empire in Africa, but the Ethiopian victory stopped this. The war was between emperor Menilek and Italian forces.