1750-1914 The European Movement
Europeans and other countries had a major impact in this era
A civil war erupted in China from 1850 to 1864. It was fought between the Machu led Qing dynasty and the Christian millenarian movement of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace. It began in the southwest providence of Guangxi. It was fought in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anghui, and nearby countries. It was because the local officials launched a champaign of persecution against the God Worshipping Society.
The two Opium Wars were between China, commissioner Lin and western countries. They were between 1839 and 1842, and 1856 and 1860. The first was between Great Britian and China. China had limited the supply of opium, so the British began smuggling it. The attacks began because people were becoming addicted to the opium. Within a few years, a treaty was made. Then he second war began, this time over an allegedly illegal Chinese search of a British ship. Another treaty solved this issue.
On November 2, 1899-September 7, 1901, a Chinese organization called the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of western and Japanese influence in northern China. They were anti-foreign and anti- Christian, leading to an eventual Boxer war.
1793 Chinese Reject Trade
In 1637, Captain Wendell successfully landed at Canton, China, where he would ask for open trade with The Chinese on behalf of the East India Company. He was then forced to leave by Chinese officials who denied him open trade. It was not until 1672 when the English East India company secured a trading post in Taiwan, with admiral Perry's help.
The war was fought between the Russian empire and the empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. It lasted a year, 1904-1905. The Japanese saw the Russian threat of expansion as a reason to go to war. The Japanese navy opened hostilities by attacking the Russian fleet at port Arthur. Tsar Nicholas kept the Russian in war until the end, because he had high hopes of winning. This also caused famine and rebellion.
From 1838-1876, the Tanzimat, a series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire brought culture, education, and religion more in line with westerners. Everything became western. The military uniform was westernized as well as government and education. This was the beginning of the end of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of modern Turkey.
The Sino Japanese war was between Japan and China over supremacy in Korea. It was when China began full scale resistance to the expansion of Japanese influence in its territory that the war began in 1937-1945. It was fought in Taiwan, Korea, and the Yellow Sea. Japan exited the war as a major world power and a winner. However, Japan would eventually annex Korea in a treaty.
The series of treaties signed during the19th and 20th century were very unequal. The Qing dynasty in China and the late Tokugawa Japan signed these treaties with western powers. They suffered great military defeat by the foreign powers and there was a threat of military action by those powers.
Self strengthening movement
In 1861-1895, institutional reforms were occurring in China. The Qing dynasty's Feng Guifen initiated the reforms after a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers. This movement attempted to adapt western institutions and military innovations to Chinese needs.
Chinese Revolution of 1911
In October of 1911, a successful revolt by a group of revolutionaries took place against the Qing dynasty. A republic was then created. Before this, China was considered "weak" and "backward." Floods and famine ultimately caused this revolt that would completely change the government of China.
Sultan Abd Al-Hamid II
Al-Hamid, 1842-1948, was a very political man. He was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and the last one to exert autocratic ruling that was successful. He delayed the liberal movement for a while. He also tried to better the economy because of society being in a state of unrest, but revolts and rebellions still took place.
This was a series of events that restored the practical imperial rule to Japan. The events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Japanese ruler, Meiji. It ended the shogunate that happened directly before it. The goals were expressed under Charter Oath.