# Got Enough Sleep?

## Question

Do the number of hours of a extracurricular activity a high school student is involved in affect the number of hours of sleep that student receives each night?

## Hypothesis

A high school student who spends more than eight hours per week in an extracurricular activity will receive less hours of sleep than a high school student who does not spend more than eight hours per week in an extracurricular activity.

## Type of Investigation

This investigation is a comparative investigation as it looks at the number of hours of sleep two groups receive each week. One group is composed of 10th to 12th graders who spend more than eight hours in an extracurricular activity per week and the other group is composed of 10th to 12th graders who do not spend more than eight hours in a extracurricular activity per week.

## Parts of Experiment

Dependent Variable - spending more or less than eight hours in extracurricular activities per week

Independent Variable - amount of sleep received per week

Control - none (comparative)

Experimental Group - 25 high school students, grades ranging from 10th to 12th

Constant Factors - students were from Coppell High School

## Analysis

In this comparative investigation, it was discovered that a high school student spending more or less than eight hours in an extracurricular activity per week did not have a significant difference on the amount of sleep they received each week.

The manipulated evidence in the data table indicates that the mean number of hours of sleep a high school student receives each week does not vary much depending on whether they spend more or less than eight hours in extracurricular activities; the mean hours of sleep of spending more than eight hours in an activity is 32 hours and the mean hours of sleep of spending less than eight hours in an activity is 33 hours, only a one hour difference. The graphs above with the mean hours of sleep as well as the error bars representing two SEM (standard error) and range show that the error bars overlap, therefore, indicating that there is not a significant difference. Going further into the results, because the p-value of 0.52 is greater than 0.05, this indicates that the independent variable did not have a significant effect on the two groups.

The energy conservation theory of sleep states that organisms that burn energy quickly or produce significant amounts of body heat sleep more than organisms that are mostly inactive. This theory would predict that high school students who spend more than eight hours in extracurricular activities receive more hours of sleep than those students who do not because they physically need the restorative sleep. However, the results from this investigation may not fully support this theory because of the small number of test subjects as well as not considering that those who do not spend more than eight hours on activities may use their free time on other matters and then procrastinate on completing assignments and those who do spend more than eight hours on activities may be more diligent on completing their assignments right after their activities, knowing that they do not have much time.

## Conclusion

Because the p-value of 0.52 is greater than 0.05 and the two error bars for 2 SEM (standard error) and range overlap, it can be concluded that the independent variable does not have a significant difference on the two groups. This means that spending more than eight hours per week on extracurricular activities or not does not affect a high school student's number of hours of sleep per week.

## Sources of Inaccuracies/Errors

The questions in the GoogleDoc survey may have not been clear to the test subjects when asked if they spend more than eight hours a week on extracurricular activities; a handful of them asked if that was including games, performances, etc. while others asked if afterschool clubs counted as an activity. This may have caused ambiguity in the results. Also, because the test subjects were not randomized and instead, subjects that the investigators knew, the results cannot account for the whole population of 10th to 12th graders.

Confusion in determining significant digits may have accounted for human error in the manipulated data due to inconsistency.

## Bibliography

Martin, Jennifer. Designing a Scientific Questionnaire Online Poster. N.p.: n.p., n.d. PDF.

Martin, Jennifer. Designing a Scientific Questionnaire. N.p.: n.p., n.d. PDF.

Martin, Jennifer. "Descriptive vs Comparative Investigations." Web. 8 Sept. 2015.<https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B-tXgSx0Khr8VWdpaU1uZUhPUDQ/edit?pli=1>.

"Sleep - Beliefs, Theories, And Scientific Observations Of Sleep." - Theory, Body, Rem, and

Animals. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Sept. 2015.