20 years of the Holocaust

By: Ashwin K., Saketh G., Maurya A.

World War 1

World War 1 resulted in the life of 9 million soldiers. Civilian casualties caused by the war numbered close to 10 million. At the peace conference in Paris in 1919, Allied leaders would state their opinions to prevent another deadly war from occurring. The Versailles Treaty, signed on June 28, 1919, would not achieve this objective. Filled with war sorrow, heavy reparations, and denied entrance into the League of Nations, Germany complained it had signed the treaty under false conditions. As the years passed, hatred of the treaty and its authors would be counted to an arguable extent among the causes of the Second World War. The two nations most affected by the war were Germany and France.

By the end of 1918, the alliance of the Central Powers was unraveling in its war effort against the better supplied and coordinated Allied powers. Using all of their military weapons and the surrender of its weaker allies, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire, Germany was forced to seek an accord with the Allies in early November 1918. This pushed Germany's discontent off the limit. The Allied Powers tried to resist the Axis Powers by fighting back. Eventually, they lost due to their lack of supplies and strategies. As a society, we can learn not to fight a war this big again, as it will result into a mass number of innocent deaths.

Big image

Germany Signs Versailles Treaty 6/28/1919

Representatives from the German Republic signed a peace treaty in Versailles. This forced Germany to admit its guilt for starting the war and to give up their property to France, to Poland, and to Denmark. They had to accept restrictions on the size of its armed forces, and pay large reparations to France. Large groups in Germany considered these commitments a national humiliation that had to be taken back. A treaty signed at Trianon in 1920 left Hungary one-third of its prewar territory and two-fifths of its population, fueling Hungarian discontent throughout the war periods. Germany did not want the treaty to pass, but unfortunately they were powerless. As a society, we can learn to resolve conflicts faster in a more peaceful manner.

Nazi Party Established 2/24/1920

The evolution of organized National Socialism (Nazi Party) began with the formation of the German Workers' Party in Munich on January 5, 1919, headed by Anton Drexler who was know for heavy prejudice against Jews. Nazi ideology was established from the outset mainly on populism and racism. Adolf Hitler joined the party on September 12, 1919, and, after a brief career as the Nazi's promoter, became its leader in 1921. By 1923, the party was active in various places, foremost in Bavaria. A short time later, it earned a reputation as an aggressive national movement by instigating political ferment by means of surprising tactics, such as confrontational annoyance by the party's storm-trooper organization and various actions based on the followers model.

At that time, Nazi influence was especially strong among nationalist organizations in Bavaria. As an immediate result of this, Hitler headed a failed attempt to bring the Weimar government down by means of an armed coup in Munich, on November 9, 1923. The party was outlawed for a short time and Hitler spent nine months in prison. Shortly after his release, the Nazi Party was re-established and spread from Bavaria to western and northern Germany. In elections to the Reichstag in 1924, the Nazis won only 3 percent of the vote. Their dramatic ascent began in the 1930s, the party's parliamentary strength rising from 18.3 percent in 1930, to 37.3 percent in 1932, and 43.9 percent in elections held on March 5, 1933. Party membership climbed from 6,000 in 1922 to 8.5 million in 1945.

The Nazi Party was controlled by a centralized structure based on the Fuehrerprinzip. Organizationally, the party was run by eighteen party officials at the rank of regional leader territorially and was managed by 32 Gauleiters. The party's institutions included the SA, the SS, and the Hitler Youth. These organizations were the major cause of the killings of minority groups. Many anti-Nazi people that were in the government did not want the Nazis participating in the German government. The Nazi Party also had many failed attempts in their ambitious goals. As a society today, we can learn that racial prejudice is detrimental for the growth of a government.

Big image

Hitler becomes Chancellor 1/30/1933

After the election of November, they rejected the program of the Chancellor, and wanted a government of concentration camps. In response Papen resigned. He appointed the Minister of Defense as Chancellor, but he resigned less than two months later. Now he chose Hitler because of the Conservatives, who thought they could manipulate him for their own well being. The new era started out subtly, only three of the 11 ministers in Hitler's government were Nazis. Swiftly, Hitler took over all mechanisms of the government, making Nazi Germany a total dictatorship. The president of Germany tried to constrain Hitler from being chancellor, but was unfortunately tricked by the conservative party. Today as a society, we know that if power is in the hands of the deserving government party, then success is guaranteed.
Hitler becomes chancellor (1933)

Dachau camp established 3/22/1933

The new Nazi regime established the first concentration camp about 15 kilometers northwest of Munich. Heinrich Himmler dedicated the camp, meant to contain 5,000 prisoners, at a press conference on March 20. The first group of prisoners mostly consisted of Communists and Social Democrats. Bavarian police guarded the prisoners until April 11, when the SS took over. Theodor Eicke, appointed commandant of the camp in June 1933, elaborated its organizational structure and its detailed rules. When Eicke was placed in charge of all concentration camps, he applied the rules and the regimen that he had developed at Dachau elsewhere, too. Because the institution Eicke developed was meant, by its very existence, to sow fear among the population, it became an efficient tool in silencing opponents of the regime.

The first Jewish people that were deported were one of the political opponents of the Nazi regime. However, Jews were treated more harshly than other prisoners. Slowly, the Sinti and Roma peoples were imprisoned there, along with the Nazi's political opponents, and more than 10,000 Jews from all over Germany were interned there after the Kristallnacht pogrom. From 1937 until 1941, those who could prove that they were about to leave Germany were released. When the genocide of Jews began, the Jewish prisoners were deported from Dachau and other camps in the Reich to the extermination camps in East Germany. The camps mainly affected groups that were wrong in Hitler's eyes. Many Jews tried to instigate major insurrection in the camp, but failed due to the Nazis' mass power. As a society, we know that everyone should be treated equally and that no one should be singled out.

Big image
Inside the Dachau Concentration Camp

German-Polish non-aggression pact

Germany and Poland signed a 10-year non-aggression pact. It was requested by Hitler, and Poland never consulted France, its chief ally. Germany was saying that it had no quarrel with Poland, but only with the communist Russia. Warsaw (capital of Poland) had concluded it could no longer rely on outside support in preserving Poland's independence. The treaty stated that neither party's would use fighting for to settle disputes. The pact was also significant in that Poland became the first nation to enter into a wonderful relationship with the Nazi regime. Warsaw was anxious to avoid becoming involved in the quarrels of Poland's neighbors, and the pact accurately reflected a Polish policy of trying to maintain friendly relations with all powers. Citizens of Poland objected to this pact, due to the fact that the German Nazis could not be trusted and that they would break the truce. As a society, we can learn that truces should be treated as a respected contract.

Big image

Hindenburg dies 8/2/1934

German President Paul von Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934, at the age of 86. Although the powerful president gave the government a purpose to continue its legacy of power. After Hindenburg's death, Hitler merged the offices of chancellor and president and became the Reichsfuehrer, thereby making him the leader of Germany. This was the start when Hitler officially began to misuse his power. Many loyalists of Hindenburg objected to Hitler becoming president. Unfortunately, being chancellor meant that he would become president by default. As a society, we can learn that misuse of power is unwarranted and can hurt civilians.

Big image

Fun Facts

1. Approximately 220,000-500,000 Romanies were killed during the Holocaust.

2. Unlike other genocides in which victims are often able to escape death by converting to another religion, those of Jewish descent could be spared only if their grandparents had converted to Christianity before January 18, 1871 (the founding of the German Empire).

3. During the Holocaust, the most respected German corporations used slave labor, including BMW, Daimler-Benz (Mercedes-Benz), Messerschmitt, and Krupp. Though they were not forced to use slaves, they nevertheless used them as “good business practice.” Additionally, I.G. Farben, a German chemical industry conglomerate, invested more than 700 million Reich marks (German dollars) to build a huge petrochemical plant at Auschwitz III, which was staffed by human slave.

4. The Nazis would process Holocaust victims’ hair into felt and thread. Hair was also used to make socks for submarine crews, ignition mechanisms in bombs, ropes and cords for ships, and stuffing for mattresses. Camp commanders were required to submit monthly reports on the amount of hair collected.

5. British troops liberating Bergen-Belsen found that the Nazis had experimented using human skin for lampshades.

6. Six million is the minimum number of Jews killed by the Nazis. Thousands of infants and babies were killed before their births could be recorded.

The Great Dictator - speech


“World War I ends.” 2013. The History Channel website. Nov 1 2013, 3:00 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/world-war-i-comes-to-an-end.

"The Holocaust." Timeline. Yad Vashem, 25 Oct. 2011. Web. 03 Nov. 2013.

"A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust, Timeline." A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust, Timeline. Florida Center for Instructional Technology, n.d. Web. 03 Nov. 2013.

Gates, Zach. "The Great Dictator - Speech." YouTube. YouTube, 12 Oct. 2006. Web. 05 Nov. 2013.

Gates, Zach. "Why Did Hitler Become Chancellor?" YouTube. YouTube, 01 Apr. 2008. Web. 05 Nov. 2013.

"90 Important Facts About . . . Var Addthis_config = {"services_compact":"email,fark,digg,delicious,linkedin", "services_expanded":"email,fark,digg,delicious,linkedin"};." 90 Important Facts about the Holocaust. Random Facts, 17 July 2011. Web. 05 Nov. 2013.