DNA - DeoxyriboNucleicAcid

DNA, what does it do? Maybe it makes YOU.


You know, not that may people know what DNA is. I mean all it does it makes up everything living, no big deal, right? Wrong, you are made of billions of DNA molecules and every single one of them has a part in keeping you working. In the form of a double helix, or, twisted staircase. Made of nucleotides, such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine, as well as a phosphate group and a monosaccharide sugar called deoxyribose. DNA found in the nucleus of cells, but we won't get into cells right now, maybe later.
What is DNA?

What does DNA do?

DNA carries all of the information about your personal characteristics, that information is controlled by proteins, and each protein in encoded by a gene.
DNA also controls a lot of other things, such as heredity. In heredity, DNA is the reason you like the way you do and have the traits of parents. Genes in the DNA pass these traits from parent to offspring, or child. Then the DNA replicates during mitosis and meiosis and keeps doing that until you are made.

Second, replication, DNA replication occurs in the cytoplasm or nucleus, depending on whether or not it is a eukaryotic cell or a prokaryotic cell. The DNA inside the cell must unwind the double helix and allow enzymes to attach and create a new strand of DNA, so you will wind up with a new and old half of the DNA molecule.

Lastly is protein production, the DNA is made of a chain of nucleotide bases, ribosomes reads the codes on the chain that are usually codes for one particular amino acid. A type of RNA called tRNA, assembles the protein one amino acid at a time.

What is RNA?

RNA is like DNA, they're are both Nucleic Acids actually, RNA has a sort of biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Along with proteins and carbohydrates, RNA constitutes the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.

Three Types of RNA.

There are 3 types of RNA. One being mRNA, or messenger, transcribes the genetic code from DNA into a form that can be read and used to make proteins, mRNA carries genetic information from the nucleus, to the cytoplasm of a cell.

Second is rRNA, or ribosomal, is located in the cytoplasm of a cell where ribosomes are found, rRNA directs the translation of mRNA into proteins.

Last is, tRNA, or transfer, like rRNA, it is located in the cellular cytoplasm and is involved in protein synthesis. It transfers amino acids to the ribosome that correspond to each three-nucleotide codon of rRNA.

Lastly, What does RNA do?

Well, you must understand that RNA is essential for the information in DNA to remain stable, DNA is like the "master copy". Think of it as DNA makes RNA makes Protein. RNA is used to transfer information, make proteins and replicate new DNA. For a more detailed look at what all different things RNA does, read the paragraph above, again because I'm sure you have already. Thanks for reading my Smore.