Electrostatic Speakers

By Emily Adamo

So what are electrostatic speakers?

Electrostatic speakers are types of speakers that generate sound using positive and negative electric charges over three panels, a stationary diaphragm, and two stators also known as conductive plates. Electrostatic speakers have exceptionally clear and accurate sound procreation, and are preferred by many people.

How do they work?

Electrostatic speakers vibrate air using a large and thin conductive diaphragm panel balanced between two motionless conductive panels. These conductive panels are charged with electrical current from a wall outlet, making an electrical field with a positive end and a negative end.

The audio signal creates a current through the balanced diaphragm panel, promptly transferring a positive charge and a negative charge. When the charge is positive, the panel is drawn toward the negative end of the field; when the charge is negative, it moves toward the positive end of the field. The diaphragm promptly vibrates the air in front of it.

Below is a quick youtube of how a popular electrostatic speaker company constructs their speakers!

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Electrostatic Loudspeaker (ESL) Technology - MartinLogan

Overall Effect

Because the panel has such a low mass, it counters very quickly and accurately to changes in the audio signal. This makes for strong, sharp, and extremely precise sound reproduction. The panel doesn't transfer a great distance so it is not very efficient at creating lower-frequency sounds. For this reason, electrostatic speakers are frequently paired with a woofer that enhances the low-frequency range.

Below is an audio recording of how remarkable and comprehensive electrostatic speakers sound

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Electrostatic loudspeakers powered by 1000 watt Sony car amps, and Audio Control two way electronic