The world is changing

Baltimore, Maryland, 1824

Gibbons vs Ogden

Gibbons vs Ogden made it to the supreme court in 1824, the court reinforced the federal gov. authority to control trade between the states by ending monopolistic control over waterways in several states.

Samuel F.B. morse

in 1832 Samuel F.B. Morse perfected the telegraph a device that can send info over wires a great distance. to develop the telegraph Morse studied electricity and magnetism. The telegraph sends pulses or surges of electric current through a wire. In 1844 Morse sent his first message, From Washington D.C., to Baltimore, Maryland.

John Deere

In 1837, John Deere, blacksmith and inventor, saw that friends had difficulty plowing through thick soil with iron plows. He thought a steel blade might work better. His design for a steel plow was a successes. By 1846 Deere was selling 1,000 plows a year.

Peter Cooper

Peter Cooper built a small locomotive called the Tom Thumb

And he raced it against a horse drawn rail car.

The Tom Thumb was also the first American-built steam locomotive to be operated on a common-carrier railroad.


Holt textbook


Missouri state parks

history .com

spread of mills and worker’s lives

The early mills used the putting out system in which the mill did carding and spinning, but hand weavers were paid to weave the fabric then return it to the mill for finishing. Then, in the 1830s, improved machinery allowed mills to do the entire process with machines, greatly reducing the cost of cotton cloth. In 1841, power looms that could manage wool were developed and affordable woolens appeared.

Labor reforms and trade unions

The labor movement in the United States grew out of the need to protect the common interest of workers. For those in the industrial sector, organized labor unions fought for better wages, reasonable hours and safer working conditions. The labor movement led efforts to stop child labor, give health benefits and provide aid to workers who were injured or retired.


John Fitch built four steamboats, but they were expensive to build and to operate. Because they were so expensive, his steamboats were unsuccessful. The first successful steamboat was the Clermont, which was built by American inventor Robert Fulton in 1807.


The First Transcontinental Railroad (known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "overland route") was a 1,907-mile (3,069 km) contiguous railroad line constructed in the U.S. between 1863 and 1869 west of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers to connect the Pacific coast at San Francisco bay with the existing eastern U.S. rail network at council bluffs, Iowa.