Chapter 1&2 Summary

By: Barbie Baquero & Jordan Zanella


The following is a brief summary of Chapters 1: Learning Past and Future & Chapter 2: The Perfect Learning Storm from 21st Century Skills by Bernie Trilling & Charles Fadel. Chapter 1 was illustrated and summarized by Barbie Baquero while Chapter 2 was summarized by Jordan Zanella. The compilation and organization of this smore was a group effort.

Chapter 1: Learning Past and Future

Industrian Age Value Chain

The process of turing natural raw materials into products needed by the consumers

Example: Sand is collected to make glass for the screen of iPads

Knowledge Age Value Chain

The process of turning information provided by consumers into products the consumer can utilize

Example: Surveying about restaurants and making an app to help consumers locate local restaurants based on menu and price

Key Points:

Educational Goals Throughout the Years

Chapter 2: The Perfect Learning Strom

21st Century Learning Convergence

Four Powerful Forces

We are being lead to new forms of learning. Knowledge Work, Thinking Tools, Digital Lifestyle, and Learning Research.

Knowledge Work

Today's knowledge work is being done within groups. While working in groups you can be in different locations and on different devices while working on the same thing and coordinating the project. This is made possible with the use of cellphones, laptops, email, text messaging, social networking tools, and more.

Thinking Tools

Today the speed of technology is moving at a quicker pace than ever before. "The average cellphone has more processing power than all the computers used to plan and run early space missions."

Knowledge Work and Thinking Tools Downsides

Though these tools are used to help us "learn, work, and be creative" there are many downsides that come with it. There is an endless amount of software updates, Computer crashing, identify theft, to much information that is of no use, privacy concerns, flood of emails, and more,

Digital Lifestyle

Young people are becoming experts on the "most powerful tool" in society while the older people have problems grasping it. Roles are being reversed. The students are becoming the teachers to the teachers and parents.

Learning Research

Authentic Learning

It is said that students need to see more problems that are realistic real word problems. That will make the learning more useful to them and help them grasp and keep a hold of the information.

Mental Model Building

The most important step to learning new information is to recognize what you have previously learned. Teachers always jump right into the new information the old material is often forgotten.

Internal Motivation

Learning can stick to people that have some emotional connection to the subject. They can remember it better and become deeper.

Multiple Inteligence

Multiple approaches can be used while teaching information and students have many ways to show their understandence.

Social Learning

In a way all learning is considered to be "social learning" because it is all the information that over the years have been accumulated. It also increases motivation for students, improves the work that is done, and allows them to develop skills.

The Force of Resistance