By Samuel Newman and Jacob Williams
Types of Gaseous Anesthesia
volatile solvents - liquids that become a gas at room temperature.
aerosols - sprays that contain propellants and solvents.
gases - found in household or commercial products, used in medical field to provide pain relief.
Nitrites - a class of inhalants used mainly to enhance sexual experiences.
Long Term Affects
until recently there was thought to be no long term effects. New studies show 40% of Patients over 65 experienced a decline in mental function after the surgery. Most patients recover in 3 months but a small percent still have dysfunction even after the 3 months.
- All survival surgeries (major and minor) must be performed using aseptic techniques
- Non-survival surgical procedures do not require aseptic techniques or dedicated facilities, but should be performed in a clean, clutter-free area.
- Major survival surgical procedures on non-rodents must be performed only in dedicated surgical facilities.
- A single animal may not undergo more than one major survival surgery unless the multiple procedures are required to meet the objective of a single animal research activity, justified for scientific reasons and approved by the IACUC. (See Multiple Survival Surgery policy).
- All surgeries must be performed by qualified, trained personnel using techniques that avoid or minimize pain (e.g., adequate anesthesia and analgesia).
- Research personnel must maintain adequate intra-operative (e.g., during the surgery) and post-operative monitoring records. IACUC members and veterinary staff may request copies of all such records for review without prior notice.
Common Causes of Overdose
Patients who are small, elderly, or already ill are more likely to be adversely affected by errors in the ED. Factors that can lead to anesthesia overdose include the following:
- Injecting too much anesthetic
- Injecting the anesthetic at an improper rate
- Choosing the wrong anesthetic
- Monitoring or equipment failure
- Contradictory instrument values between anesthetic vaporizers/respirators and the anesthetic gas monitor.
- Gas flow setting error
- Inappropriate ventilation
- Combining incompatible drugs
- Injecting the anesthetic too quickly, which can lead to increased plasma levels of local anesthetic