Chile

Capital

Chiles capital is santiago
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Geography

one third of chile is covered by the andes mountains. Chile also inhabits the deadly Atacama desert. It is one of the most inhospitable places on earth.there are ca. 500 volcanoes, with 123 active - volcanoes that have erupted at least once in the Holocene.
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Location

chile is located in the bottom left side of South America bordering the pacific ocean
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Major cities

Some major cities in Chile are Santiago, La Florida, Maipu, Puente Alto and Las Condes
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historical sites and landmarks

La Portada - Antofagasta. Large natural arch in the sea, formed in 43 m high, 23 m wide and 70 m long cliff.Ojos del Salado - Atacama and Argentina, Catamarca. Highest volcano of the world, 6,891 m tall. It contains also crater lake at 6,390 m height - possibly the highest lake of the world.Puchuldiza Geyser field - Tarapacá. This is one of the highest geyser fields in world.Piedra de la Iglesia - Maule. Cliff resembling a giant boulder with natural arch in it. Inhabited by numerous birds.
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economy

The Chilean peso is subdivided into 100 centavos, although no centavo denominated coins remain in circulation. Colloquial names for some banknotes and coins include luka or luca for the 1000-peso banknote, quina for the 500-peso coin, and gamba for the 100-peso coin. 1 Chilean peso equals .0014 us dollars

Language

The Republic of Chile is an overwhelmingly Spanish-speaking country, with the exceptions of isolated native and immigrant communities.

Contents

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Food

Breakfast

Chileans usually eat four meals a day, and like in the US, they start the day out with breakfast. Breakfast in Chile, however, is smaller in scale than the traditional pancakes and eggs seen in the US Chileans usually eat a light breakfast consisting of toast with very sweet tea or coffee with milk.

Lunch

Lunch is one of the larger meals of the day in Chile. Traditional lunch foods include cazuela, a clear broth made with rice, potato, corn and meat. Pastel de choclo, a corn casserole made with meat, olives and vegetables, is a popular lunch summer dish. A side of pan amasado, a wood-stove baked bread readily found in the Chilean countryside, often comes with lunch.

Dinner

Parrillada-style food, or any food cooked in a brick outdoor oven known as a “parilla,” is popular as a dinner choice throughout Chile and the southern cone of South America. Similar to the way Americans cook meat on a barbecue grill, Chileans cook chicken, sausages and lamb on a parrila. Seafood, also readily available throughout Chile, is served steamed, grilled or fried. Ceviche, a traditional spanish dish that requires seafood to be refrigerated overnight with a lemon marinade, is a Chilean favorite. So is “manchas a la parmesana,” clams with parmesan cheese, which offer a nod to Chile’s Italian influence. Those looking for fast food should try “El Completo,” a hot dog with the works – mayo, ketchup, guacamole and tomatoes.

important people

Gabriela Mistral- A notable Feminist poet who is known for being the first Latin American to win the Nobel Prize for literature. Kristel Köbrich- She is a famous swimmer and considered the best that has come from Chile she holds the South American records for 800 and 1500 freestyle all this and more all at the age of 24Victor Jara- An individual with many talents who was a significant member of the communist party of Chile. He is well known for his involvement in creating the "Nueva canción Chilena" His assassination during the military coup of 1973 boosted him into the spotlight for a symbol of the fight for human rights.
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music

Chilean music experienced a rebirth of traditional folk music from the 1950’s to 1970’s, due to the political unrest that shrouded the decades. The movement, known as “nueva canción,” was a form of musical speech and political activism; however, the focus was more on voicing the people’s struggles, rather than affiliating with a particular political organisation.
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seasons and climate

The climate of Chile comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale, extending across 38 degrees in latitude, making generalizations difficult. According to the Köppen system, Chile within its borders hosts at least seven major climatic subtypes, ranging lowdesert in the north, to alpine tundra and glaciers in the east and southeast, humid subtropical in Easter Island, Oceanic in the south and Mediterranean climate in central Chile. There are four seasons in most of the country: summer (December to February), autumn (March to May), winter (June to August), and spring (September to November).

On a synoptic scale, the most important factors that controls the climate in Chile are the Pacific Anticyclone, the southern circumpolar low pressure area, the cold Humboldt current, the Chilean Coast Range and the Andes Mountains. Despite Chile's narrowness, some interior regions may experience wide temperature oscillations and cities such as San Pedro de Atacama, may even experience a continental climate. In the extreme northeast and southeast the border of Chile extends beyond the Andes into the Altiplano and the Patagonian plains, giving these regions climate patterns similar to those seen in Bolivia and Argentina respectively

sports

Chile’s robust football tradition began when a group of British immigrants founded the ‘Everton’ football club, named after the English team, in Valparaíso in 1909. The passion for football mushroomed and when Chile hosted the World Cup in 1962, it became indisputably the most popular sport in the country.Unlike north American rodeos, the Chilean rodeo takes places in a medialuna (a cresent shaped sand enclosure) whereby the collera (team) of two huasos (riders) score points by trying to pin a cow to a padded wall of the arena. Points are gained and lost depending on technique and maneuvers, if the cow escapes, the type of cow or foal, etc

religion

The majority religion in Chile in 2015 is Christianity (68%), with an estimated 55% of Chileans belonging to the Catholic church, 13% Protestant or Evangelical and just 7% with any other religion. The religiously unaffiliated population (25%) includes: atheists, agnostics and people who do not identify with any particular religion.


The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and Church and state have been officially separate since 1925.

Brief history

History. Chile was originally under the control of the Incas in the north and the nomadic Araucanos in the south. In 1541, a Spaniard, Pedro de Valdivia, founded Santiago. Chile won its independence from Spain in 1818 under Bernardo O'Higgins and an Argentinian, José de San Martin.

indegenious groups

The Chilean government currently recognizes nine indigenous groups within its borders, the: Atacameño, Aymara, Colla, Diaguita, Kawashkar, Mapuche, Quechua, Rapa Nui, and Yagán peoples. Each of these peoples has a rich history and culture that cannot be done justice here. That being said, below is a brief history of indigenous peoples in Chile taken largely from a report by the United Nations’ Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people made in 2004. Additional population and poverty data was taken from Estimating Poverty for Indigenous Groups

natural resources

Chile's greatest natural resource is its abundance of copper. Chile also has the world's largest deposits of nitrate, which was the country's major source of export income before copper. Timber, from the thick forests in the south, is another important resource.Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower

exportation

Chile’s trade, exports and imports suffered losses of more than 20% in 2009. The global recession of 2009 forced this South American nation to witness weak trading activities and unfinished projects. Exports account for 40% of Chile’s GDP, with commodities accounting for more than 75% of the total Chilean shipments. Chile’s exports shrunk by 19.3% in 2009 to $159 billion. Chile’s imports in 2009 were worth $9.4 billion, down by 21.4% from $11.9 billion in 2008. However, Chile’s global trade deficit witnessed a 10.3% drop, from $8.9 billion in 2008 to $7.9 billion in 2009.

Government

Chile is governed under the constitution of 1981 as amended. It is a multiparty democracy with a directly elected president who serves a four-year term (six-year prior to the constitutional amendments of 2005). The president may not be elected to consecutive terms. The bicameral legislature consists of a 38-seat Senate, whose members are elected to serve eight-year terms, and a 120-seat Chamber of Deputies, whose members are elected for four years. Members of both houses are elected from two-seat districts. Administratively, Chile is divided into 13 regions.
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