The Sun

Solaractivity_Josh P.

The Core

The core is the center of the sun. The core is where nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium occurs. The temperature of the core is about 27,000,000° F. The density of the core is 150 g/cm³.

http://sunearthday.nasa.gov/2007/locations/ttt_sunlight.php

Radiative Zone

The radiative zone is between the core and the convective zone. The radiative zone generates energy by receiving protons from the core that bounce from particle to particle within the radiative zone. The temperature of the radiative zone ranges from 13,000,000° F to 4,000,000° F. The radiative zone has a density of 20 g/cm³ to 0.2 g/cm³.

http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/interior.shtml

Convective Zone

The convective zone is the farthest layer of the solar interior from the core. The convective zone traps heat and makes fluids boil (convect). The energy created then travels to the surface of the sun and creates solar granules and supergranules. The temperature of the convection zone ranges from 4,000,000° F to 10,000° F.

https://www.cora.nwra.com/~werne/eos/text/convection_zone.html

Photosphere

The photosphere is the observable surface of the sun. The photosphere is 62 miles wide. Features of the photosphere include sunspots, granules, supergranules, and faculae.

http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/solar-tricktionary/en/

Chromosphere

The chromosphere is within the solar atmosphere. The chromosphere is above the photosphere. The chromosphere is 1,200 miles thick. The chromosphere is a reddish color. It can only be seen during an eclipse. The chromosphere can be observed to have solar filaments and solar prominent that rise up through the photosphere. The temperature of the chromosphere is 11,000° F to 36,000° F.

http://solarcellcentral.com/sun_page.html (The pink parts are the chromosphere)

Corona

The corona is the exterior of the sun's atmosphere. The average temperature of the corona ranges from 1,800,000° F to 3,600,000° F. The corona is only visible during a complete eclipse. The corona expands into space becoming solar wind.

https://www.eso.org/public/outreach/eduoff/vt-2004/mt-2003/mt-sun.html

Sunspots

Sunspots are darker and colder spots on the sun in the photosphere. Sunspots are usually 6,000° F. Sunspots appear dark because of the comparison to the brighter areas around it. Sunspots occur because of the interaction with the sun's magnetic field. When energy is released from sunspots coronal mass ejections occur such as solar flares.

http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/violins/en/

Prominence

Solar prominences are enormous plumes of gas that come from the photosphere and burst through the chromosphere. Solar prominences are usually in the shape of a loop. Prominences are suspended by loops of magnetic field.

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/spaceweather/index_prt.htm

Flare

Solar flares are discharges of plasma from photosphere. Solar flares are coronal mass ejections. Solar flares discharge from sunspots when energy builds up. According to NASA the energy from a solar flare is equal to 100 megaton hydrogen bombs.

http://www.space.com/11506-space-weather-sunspots-solar-flares-coronal-mass-ejections.html

Aurora

Auroras are displays of light during the night in at the high southern and northern latitudes. The aurora in the north is the Aurora Borealis and the aurora in the south is the Aurora Australis. Auroras are caused by impacts between electrons from space and air from Earth's upper atmosphere. The electrons transfer their energy to the air molecules. As the molecules go back to their earlier condition they release photons. These photons make light. The sun supplies energy for the auroras.

http://www.space.com/27159-stunning-aurora-photos-solar-storms.html

Bibliography

Hathaway, David H. "NASA/Marshall Solar Physics." NASA/Marshall Solar Physics. N.p., 11 Aug. 2014. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.


Hathaway, David H. "NASA/Marshall Solar Physics." NASA/Marshall Solar Physics. N.p., 11 Aug. 2014. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.


Hathaway, David H. "NASA/Marshall Solar Physics." NASA/Marshall Solar Physics. N.p., 11 Aug. 2014. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.


Hathaway, David H. "NASA/Marshall Solar Physics." NASA/Marshall Solar Physics. N.p., 1 Oct. 2015. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.


"Our Sun And Heliosphere, Magnetic Properties, Solar Flares, Cosmic Rays." Our Sun And Heliosphere, Magnetic Properties, Solar Flares, Cosmic Rays. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.


Staff, SPACE.com. "What Are Sunspots? | SpaceKids, Sun Science | Space.com." Space. N.p., 29 Feb. 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.


"The Sun." The Sun. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.