IPS Exam Study Guide

What I missed on tests

1. Volume of water that fills air spaces in dry sand=Air space

2. Volume of water that does not fill air spaces in sand= Volume of sand and water-volume of dry sand

3. Weight to kilograms-weight/2.2

4. Error from Mass of Gas lab that leads to loss of mass-Water on t-tube that is not on during Mi

5. Percent change in mass-Change in mass/Mi

NO CARELESS MISTAKES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

BE CAREFUL!!!!!!!!!!!!

Scientific Method Notes

1. Identify Method

2. Gather info

3. Form hypotesis/theory

4. Perform Experiment

5. Analyze data

6. Conclusion

Baking Soda Lab

Exp. Errors:

1. Hole in rubber tubing

2. Stopper not on tight

3. Tubing not in top of bottle



1. Nurse phone number-2828

2. Safety equipment in room-Fire extinguisher, fire blanket, eye wash/shower

3. Chemicals-Always waft liquids to detect odor, Never waft solids/powders

4. Glass-Hot and cold glass look the same, never use chipped or broken glass, never use force to remove or insert glass

5. Alcohol Burners-Roll up sleeve, put up long hair, dont walk away from lit burner, never point open end of hot test tube at yourself or someone else, dont look down at test tube/beaker while heating

6. Diluting acid-Acid must be added to water, never add water to acid-could cause exothermic reaction, water is less dense(lighter) than acid so it will sit on top of acid and splash out

Mass and Volume lab


1. Remass same cylinder

2. Cylinder is wet when massing

3. H2O splash out

Volume Chart

Volume of Sand Alone-Sand and Water-water

Volume of Air Space-Dry sand-sand alone

% of Dry sand that is sand-Sand alone\dry sand

% of Dry sand that is Air space-air space/dry sand


Lbs to Kg-Lbs/2.2

100 cm=1 meter

1 kg=1000 g

Volume by displacement of water

Exp. Errors-

1. Sand sticks to side of wet cylinder-Volume of sand and water will be lower

2. Record volume of sand not level of H2O level-volume of sand and water lower

3. Pour water into sand-volume of sand and water will go up

Finding Accuracy of Balance

Change in mass divided by number of yes's=accuracy of balance

Ending mass-intial mass of stopper=change in mass

Mass of Dissolved Salt

Exp. Errors:

1. Spilling salt between cap and bottle

2. Take salt off pan before you mass

3. Remove cap before Mf

4. Not shaking enough

5. Cap not tight-causes spilling

6. Not drying cap-starts dissolving early

7. bottle wet on outside for Mi

Most errors lead to decrease

Mass of Ice and Water

Exp. Errors:

1. Shake bottle

2. Not wiping off condensation on outside

3. Not letting ice melt all the way

4. Not drying bottle and cap

5. Removing cap before Mf

Condensation forms by hot water vapor hitting the colder surface-turns into water

Mass of Copper and Sulfur

1. Shaking test tube-sulfur sticks to side may not react

2. Hole in rubber sheet-gas escapes

3. sheet not on tight

If we used stopper, it would have blown off because sheet can stretch

Liquid comes from the sulfur

Sulfur dissolved into gas

Density of Solids


1. Find volume before you mass it-mass and density increase

2. Mass same cube twice

3. Measure same side of cube or slab

4. Measure from end of ruler instead of from the line

Density of Liquids


1. Liquid sticks to side when pouring

2. Drying out cylinder after massing

3. Cylinder contaminated

Density of a Gas


1. Hand not tight on bottle-water leaks out-V goes up D goes down

2. Spill water-V decreases D increases

3. Break tablet after Mi-M increase D increase

4. Hole in tubing, stopper falls off, take too long to put tubing in-V decrease D increase

5. Air bubble in bottle

6. Not putting foil on-M increase D increase

Density should be 1.8 because is Carbon Dioxide