## Components of an Experimental Design

Title: To find out if black paper as the cooking surface will cause the water to gain more thermal energy, resulting in a higher temperature at the end of experiment

Hypothesis: The setup with the black paper as the cooking surface will have a higher water temperature at the end of experiment compared to the setup with white paper

Independent Variable: The presence of black paper.

Dependent Variable: The temperature of water at the end of experiment.

Constants: Location of experiment,amount of water,time of the day the experiment took place,type of cup,size of solar cooker,type of water.

Control: The setup with white coloured paper as a cooking surface

Number of trails: 2

## Materials used

Cardboard box

Aluminum foil

Tape

Cling wrap

Black coloured paper

White coloured paper

Styrofoam cups

## Steps in conducting experiment (Methods)

1)Fill each styrofoam cup with 200ml of water

2)Put each cup in each of the boxes

3)Measure the temperature of water in each cup at the start of experiment with alcohol thermometer

4)Record down the results

5)Placed the setups at the experimental site and leave it there for exactly 30 minutes

6)Measure the temperature of water in each of the cup at the end of experiment with alcohol thermometer

7)Record down the results

8)Conduct the second trial of the experiment again starting from step 1 to step 7.

9)Come up with conclusion

10)Find evidence to prove that the results attained is true and reliable

At our experiment site with our solar cookers (photo above)
Science Solar Cooker Experiment

## Experiment Results and Conclusion (Analysis and Discussion)

For the first trial,the temperature of the water at the start was 28 degree Celsius for both setups.

After 30 minutes, the temperature of the water in the setup was 44 degree Celsius in the setup with a black colored cooking surface and 39 degree Celsius for the setup with white colored cooking surface.

In the second trial ,the starting temperature of the water with a black surface was 28 degree Celsius while the other one was 29 degree Celsius .

The results were that the water with the box with a black surface has a temperature of 40 degree Celsius ,the other setup had a water temperature of 37 degree Celsius .

We concluded that the setup with black paper as the cooking surface allows water to gain thermal energy faster as the temperature of water at the end of experiment was higher than the setup with a white coloured cooking surface.

Thus a solar cooker with a black cooking surface is a better choice as it would be able to cook food faster.

Based on the experimental results, the hypothesis we made at the start of the experiment is correct.

From our further online research, black is scientifically proven to be a better conductor of thermal energy than white so the results of the experiment is reliable.

## Further improvements that could be made (Conclusion)

Perhaps one more trial to boost reliability and a more stable average in results

## Duties and Acknowledgement

Yi Ling: Provided Materials,made the setups,note taking,photographer,conduct experiment

Sammy: Provided Materials,Made the setups,photographer,video taking,conduct experiment

Tian Ao: Made the setups,Note taking,photographer,conduct experiment

Tong Yan: Made the setups,note taking,photographer,conduct experiment

Special thanks to Li Ting for providing us with the cardboard boxes,Mr Lee for guiding us in our project flyer and to whoever that had helped us in one way or another .