NABE 1st Place Elementary Essay Winner, Andrea Rodriguez

Andrea, a third grader from Sanchez Elementary in McAllen, Texas won a national bilingual essay competition. She wrote, “Because I speak Spanish, I was able to say goodbye to my abuelito when he became a star.”



Dear members of the Texas Association for Bilingual Education

I am honored to serve as the new Executive Director of TABE, and I am excited to work with all of you to promote bilingual education in our beautiful state of Texas. Did you know that Texas now has the most emergent bilingual students in the whole nation? We have the incredible opportunity to provide equitable access to high quality educational opportunities for more than one million bilingual learners today, changing the future of our country for years to come!

As many of you know, bilingual education is not only important for individual student success, but also for the success of our state and nation as a whole. Bilingual individuals are in high demand in today's global economy and society. In addition, research shows that bilingual education has numerous cognitive benefits for students, including improved problem-solving, creative thinking, and decision-making skills.

It is my goal as Executive Director to not only support current bilingual education programs, but also to expand access to high quality bilingual education for all students throughout Texas. This includes working with legislators and educators to increase funding for bilingual education programs and research based professional development for pre-service and in-service teachers, paraprofessionals, and instructional leaders alike.

I also want to make sure that TABE is a valuable resource for all members. Whether you are a teacher, administrator, or parent, I want TABE to be a place where you can find the support and resources you need to advocate for bilingual education and to improve your own bilingual education practices and advocacy efforts.

In order to achieve these goals, I need your help. I encourage all members to get involved in TABE and to share your ideas and feedback. By working together, we can make sure that all Texas students have access to the great benefits of bilingual education. Feel free to share your thoughts and ideas directly with me at I am here to listen and support you every step of the way!

Por último, quisiera compartir que estoy muy emocionada de trabajar con todos ustedes para promover programas de educación bilingüe de alta calidad en nuestro gran estado de Texas. Juntos, podemos asegurarnos que todos los estudiantes en nuestro estado tengan acceso a los beneficios de convertirse en una persona bilingüe, bilietrada y bicultural. Juntos, nuestras voces, y las voces de nuestros estudiantes y de sus familias, se pueden escuchar aún más alto. Juntos, por medio de la educación bilingüe, ¡podemos revolucionar el mundo!

Mil gracias,

Karina Chapa, M.Ed.

Executive Director

Texas Association for Bilingual Education

Connect with us!

@bilingualpride @TA4BE


Hola TABE Familia

As I enter my first year as TABE President, I know that our organization, and bilingual education at large, continues to be more relevant and important for all of us that aspire to see the state of Texas as a leader, championing the academic trajectory of all multilingual learners. Our collective effort, as one large intentional network, is critical to continue to strengthen our practices and systems to better serve students, their families, educators, administrators, and all stakeholders. We need to continue to promote an asset-based approach with transformational impact to education and economic wealth statewide.

Therefore, I thank each one of you for your unwavering commitment to serve every multilingual student and for cultivating the linguistic and cultural assets they bring into classroom environments and communities. Please know that TABE needs every member, every stakeholder to ensure we meet our goal of empowering multilingual learners to achieve their highest potential with equitable opportunities and access to a high-quality bilingual education program to develop bilingualism, biliteracy, and biculturalism/multiculturalism with high sociocultural competence.

Mil gracias to all the educators, our superheroes, developing the superpowers of the multilingual learners they serve on a daily basis. We appreciate your dedication and genuine commitment to meet your students’ affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs through culturally and linguistically sustaining practices. As the spring break approaches, please take some quality time to recharge and take care of your well-being. We wish you and your loved ones a very happy and safe vacation.

TABE will continue to redesign, reimagine, and restructure our services to support you the rest of the 2022-2023 SY and the many to follow. We are working diligently to better serve you. Stay tuned to the menu of services we are developing with you in mind, including the 2nd Annual DL Symposium and 2023 51st Annual Conference.

Together we will continue to increase awareness on the benefits of bilingualism. Like the Secretary of Education, Dr. Miguel Cardona, states “Bilingualism is a Superpower!”

¡Mil Gracias, por su apoyo incondicional a los estudiantes y sus familias!

Con mucho respeto,

Dra. Xóchitl Anabel Rocha

TABE President




On March 1, 2023 members of the Texas Association for Bilingual Education visited the Texas Capitol. TABE joined efforts with the Texas Legislative Education and Equity Coalition. This coalition is composed of organizations that advocate for the rights of children in Texas such as IDRA, LULAC, Texas NAACP, etc.

The event: “Protecting and promoting justice, equity, diversity and inclusion” focused on promoting justice, increasing funding to address the teacher shortage, supporting public education and supporting high-quality bilingual education programs.

TABE representatives, Hugo Hernández, TABE’s Legislative Chair, Dr. Olivia Hernández, TABE’s Past President, Julie Gonzalez, SAAABE, Patricia Nuñez, AAABE, and Dr. Sikes, IDRA, had the opportunity to visit the offices of elected officials to advocate for legislation that embraces and supports the cultural and linguistic diversity of students in Texas.

As the 88th legislation continues to unfold, these are key areas:

  1. Increase the number of quality, certified bilingual education teachers through preparation program support, strengthened teacher retention strategies and higher teacher pay.

  2. Adopt the State Seal of Biliteracy with pathways from elementary school through high school.

  3. Raise the bilingual education funding weight and expenditures minimum to support and expand quality bilingual education educators, programs, and instructional materials.

Relevant bills for the 88th Legislative session:

  • HB 1069 – Creates a state Seal of Biliteracy to recognize students’ advanced achievement in both English and a language other than English

  • HB 2147 – Waives bilingual education certification exam fees for teacher candidates

  • HB 2164 – Creates stronger monitoring system within TEA for quality bilingual/ESL programs

  • HB 2168 – Creates high school career technical education pathway for bilingual/ESL and Spanish language teachers with a scholarship program

  • HB 2169 – Allows emergent bilingual students in alternative language programs that are structured for dual language immersion to generate dual language allotment funding

  • HB 2372 – Requires TEA to develop training materials and resources for educators on bilingual education and dual language immersion programs

  • HB 3302 – Authorizes study on a Spanish STAAR option for middle and high school students

  • HB 3303 – Creates certification options for secondary teachers to become certified in bilingual education

  • HB 3305 – Allows reclassified emergent bilingual students enrolled in dual language programs to generate bilingual education funding

  • SB 442 – Increases expenditure requirement for bilingual education allotment

  • HB 1548 by Talarico Increase teacher pay by $15,000


Part I: The Formative Years

The October 30-31, 1966, National Education Association (NEA) Conference on The Spanish-Speaking Child in the Schools of the Southwest was the prime stimulus for a series of pivotal outcomes culminating with the enactment of federal legislation supporting bilingual education for LESA (Limited-English-Speaking-Ability) children, as defined in the original law. That landmark legislation marking a radical break with previous U.S. policy was Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). This legislation was enacted as an amendment to the 1965 ESEA legislation.

As a member of the 1969 first critical mass of 17 new directors of the inaugural Title VII programs of bilingual education in Texas, I did not realize at the time I was beginning a long and laborious—yet exciting—career journey. With few exceptions, the program directors of the nascent programs, along with the teachers, shared a common Mexican-American heritage and Spanish language tradition. These Title VII program professionals had also experienced public schooling during one of the most painful periods for Spanish-speaking learners. The group’s passion for change was therefore not only driven by a professional obligation, but also by a personal commitment to convert the schools to more flexible and welcoming institutions for all learners.

The urgency for education reform is evident in the stark contrast between the 1923 state government message quoted below, likely to Spanish-speaking parents, and the school messaging today that centers on democratic values of social justice, equity, and the strength of cultural diversity.

If you desire to be one of us, stay, and we welcome you; but, if you wish to preserve the language and the customs of another land, you have no right to do this…Texas children must learn the tongue which we speak and you must use the English language…If you will not do this, then (you) must…go back to the country which you prize so highly, and rear your children there. (Zamora, Emilio. A Status Survey of Texas’ Bilingual-Bicultural Programs, University of Texas Dissertation, 1977)

The clear intended purpose of this pronouncement by unvexed state education leaders was to intimidate and to supplement restrictive “melting pot”-type provisions contained in the 1918 Texas English-only Law.

Such extreme ethnocentric regulations were for decades applied with intense fervor by officials at the highest levels of government as justification to punish school children and chastise parents for breaking the English-only rule. Very significantly, discriminatory policy statements and school practices promoting and valuing exclusively one language and one culture sparked the school reform agenda produced by organizers of the 1966 Tucson conference. The ultimate blueprint for action by these delegates, mainly from southwestern states, called for revolutionizing public education both fundamentally and with sensitivity to the children’s cultural and language differences. The plan focused on six key areas for reform ranging from the individual classroom to the federal government.

The Honorable Texas Senator Joe Bernal, a participant at the Tucson conference, later led in the planning for the two subsequent national meetings to the Arizona meeting. The first, titled The Texas Conference for the Mexican American: Improving Educational Opportunities, was held in San Antonio in April 1967; the second convened in Austin the following year. Each of these national meetings focused on the underserved Mexican American students and the impact of a corrosive English-only driven system in diminishing the self-image and academic performance of these same learners, as reported in the 1966 NEA-Tucson survey study titled The Invisible Minority. A fourth meeting was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico in November 1973. These will be referenced in a later column.

Understandably, both conferences focused sharply on the moral imperative and practices for rehabilitating an inadequate system of education teeming with cultural injustices aimed at the most vulnerable of American communities, our children.

Two leaders from Texas who felt the pressure for acting immediately on the system change objectives promulgated by the Tucson delegates were the Honorable Senator Bernal and U.S. Senator Ralph W. Yarborough. Senator Yarbrough’s series of national hearings before the Special Subcommittee on Bilingual Education in May – July 1967 eventually garnered the support for the necessary congressional approval of the original ESEA Bilingual Education Act, also Title VII. That legislation was signed into law by President Johnson in 1968.

Equally significant, was Senator Bernal’s successful action in securing Texas government approval of his S.B. 46 in 1969. This allowed school district officials to implement programs of bilingual education operating under Title VII without feeling the threat of retribution for violating the state’s English – only law. The Texas House companion bill, H.B. 103, was introduced by Rep. Carlos Truán from Corpus Christi. The approval of this permissive legislation opened the door for the implementation of the first ESEA Title VII programs of bilingual education to operate in Texas in the fall of 1969.

In Part II of the column series on gauging our progress entitled “Sí Se Puede”, I will focus on the major challenges of the school -based bilingual educators when faced with the reality of implementing a radically different new program with no prior evidence of successful models, much less trained teachers, and a relevant curriculum. It would be, however, the steadfast commitment of bilingual educators to program change that would be tested in the face of resistance to alter the deeply seated organizational and pedagogical one-size-fits-all practices of conventional programs of education.

Rudy Rodríguez, Ph.D.

Ft. Worth ISD, Founding Director of Bilingual Education, 1969 -1973

Founding President of Ft. Worth ABE, 1972. FWABE was the first Tx. ISD affiliate of TABE

TABE Vice-President during the presidential term of the late Dr. Arturo Gutiérrez, 1976-1978, NOTE: the V.P. position title was later changed to President-Elect; also, TABE officers’ term of office was reduced to 1 year.

Texas Woman’s University, Bilingual Teacher Education Professor, 1975 -2002

University of North Texas Professor, 2002-2008 (Retired)

Commissioned by TABE President Irma Hinojosa in 2003 to produce The Texas Bilingual Education Story (now available on YouTube)



Dr. William “Bill” Pulte

TABE is deeply saddened to learn of the passing of Dr. William “Bill” Pulte. Dr. Pulte served for more than 25 years as director of SMU's Bilingual Education Programs, including a master's degree, teacher certification, and teacher-training programs funded by the U.S. Department of Education. He also directed school district and university programs in bilingual education funded by Title VII and Title III federal grants. He hoped that the grant would address the ever-growing bilingual teacher shortage in Texas. In 2005, Dr. Pulte was recognized as the TABE Higher Education Honoree due to his extensive research and advocacy to grow bilingual teachers, programs, and students.

Thank you, Dr. Pulte, for blazing the trail; may we continue to fight a good fight. Our thoughts and prayers are with the Pulte family during this time of grief.




The Question Formulation Technique: A Cognitive and Linguistic Bundle!

The Question Formulation Technique is a phenomenal instructional tool that offers emergent bilinguals the opportunity to use multiple thinking abilities, become independent thinkers, and self-directed learners by developing and asking questions. Imagine your emergent bilingual students being able to freely analyze texts, generate new ideas, synthesize information, use various thinking abilities, all the while, supporting their linguistic journey. This is possible with the Question Formulation Technique, QFT!

For the past two decades Dan Rothstein and Luz Santana tested, simplified, and improved the process of learning to develop and ask questions. In their book Make Just One Change: Teach Students to Ask Their Own Questions, Rothstein and Santana describe step by step how to teach multiple thinking abilities in a simple but impactful way through the use of QFT.

So how does the QFT work? Look at the steps below.

Question Focus: Develop and choose a Question Focus, QFocus. This can be a statement, visual, phrase, or a video. The QFocus should be simple and clear.

Rules For Producing a Question: Next, share the rules for producing the questions.

  1. Ask as many questions as you can.

  2. Do not stop to discuss, judge, or answer the questions.

  3. Write down every question exactly as it is stated.

  4. Change any statement into a question.

Introduce the QFocus and Produce the Questions: Once the rules are introduced and discussed with students, introduce the QFocus. When introducing the QFocus, keep explanation or additional information to a minimum. Set a timer and allow the students to start generating questions. Students will number the questions as they are being generated.

Improve: After the questions have been produced, students will work with the questions to identify how different types of questions stimulate different types of information and answers. Share with students that questions can be open- or closed-ended. Closed-ended questions can be answered with yes, no, or with one word. Open-ended questions require an explanation and cannot be answered with yes, no, or with one word.

Set the timer and have students categorize questions as closed-ended or open-ended by marking the closed-ended questions with a “C” and open-ended with an “O.”

After all the questions have been marked, students will review the list of questions and change questions from one type to another. They will change one close-ended question to an open-ended question and vice versa.

Prioritize Questions: Prioritization of questions should take students back to the lesson objectives. Have students revisit the lesson objectives and discuss using the questions that are in alignment to the objective. Students will select the top three questions they consider a priority. They will discuss why they selected those specific priority questions and where their priority questions fell in the sequence of the question list. For example, a group of students may choose to prioritize questions 7, 15, 21 on their list.

Next Steps: Discuss how the questions will be used.

Reflect: Students will reflect on the process using the following reflective questions:

· What did you learn?

· How can you use what you learned?

This step helps students think metacognitively about how they used questions to learn.

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QFT in Action
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¡ADELANTE! Conference - Austin, Texas

On March 4th, almost four hundred participants from the Austin Area had the opportunity to meet in an atmosphere of celebration and community for the tenth anniversary of the Adelante conference organized by the Austin Area Association for Bilingual Education. For the first time at Adelante, we had the Leaders Institute led by Dr. Elena Izquierdo.

We enjoyed amazing speakers such as Montserrat Garibay, Dr. Carla España, Dr. Xóchitl Rocha, and Dr. Julie Lara. Additionally, we had incredible presenters and the perfect space to celebrate our bilingualism, culture, traditions, and values. We remembered the beginning of our conference, the origin of it, and we recognized the hard work of those who tirelessly worked for bilingual education. We ended the day wishing we would return next year.

Written by: Mr. Manuel Martinez, AAABE President

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RGV TABE Conference - Many Languages, Un Mundo! - South Padre Island, Texas

After a hybrid conference in 2022, we were excited to see over 420 participants join us during our 28th Annual RGV-TABE Conference at South Padre Island. We had amazing partnerships this year, such as the one we formed with the Texas Education Agency, in which we were able to join with the state and have powerful in-person sessions. We are definitely BETTER TOGETHER and ALL of RGV-TABE members demonstrated that!!"

Written by: Mr. Edgar Ibarra, RGV-TABE Executive Board President



TABE Graduate Symposium

The 2023 TABE Conference is in October and planning for the event has launched. One new pre-conference event will be the 2023 Graduate Symposium held on Wednesday, October 18, 2023. The Graduate Symposium will have a call for proposals for all graduate students, both at master’s and doctoral levels, to present their latest research. They will be encouraged to submit their work that is either part of their thesis/dissertation or a manuscript they are working on for publication. At the Graduate Symposium, those selected will present their papers and receive feedback, edits, and/or recommendations from faculty in the field. Attendance to this event is also beneficial for those in the early stages of their graduate studies or are considering applying for graduate school. Please encourage your graduate students to submit a proposal and attend the 2023 Graduate Symposium. It will be a great learning experience!
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TABE Conference Proposals Review Process

This is a reminder that all conference proposals submitted for review to the TABE Conference are processed through a double-blind review. For this upcoming conference, all the research proposals will have a double-blind review by experts in the field of Bilingual Education. TABE organizes the leading conference focused on Bilingual Education, bringing together educators from early childhood to university, along with non-profits and community advocates. With all the progress and areas that still need attention in the field, presenting research findings, theoretical frameworks, etc. it critical to continue to have a positive impact on the education of all bilingual students. This year’s theme, Embracing Our Roots, Reimaginado el Future: Every Child Bilingüe, provides in-depth opportunity to study, discuss, and contribute to the design of the future of Bilingual Education. We are excited to read the proposal submitted for the 2023 TABE Conference in McAllen, Texas.


Hola educadores del presente y del futuro,

Me siento muy privilegiada de tener la oportunidad de compartir con ustedes algunas de las técnicas que practico o que me han sugerido profesores y alumnos.

  • To keep up with courses, it is important to have a planner (on paper, online, or on your computer). If possible, color code your assignments by course or type (exams, quizzes, assignments, etc.). Read your syllabus and highlight all the important information. Plan ahead, if you know you have an assignment due and an important activity (personal or extracurricular) plan ahead! It’s okay to go out and have some fun with your family or friends but prioritize. School is going to go by fast, enjoy the ride. You can learn a lot about yourself and from others through this experience. You will learn a lot from your courses! Give yourself the opportunity to grow.

  • It is important to practice self-care by staying hydrated, taking outdoor walks, doing yoga, stretching, reaching out to someone if you need to talk. Most universities offer counselors who will listen and speak to you.

  • For certification exams it is recommended that students study at least 30 minutes a day, especially in the sections where their Certify Teacher score show need of improvement. It is best if students pick one exam preparation choice and focus on it for best results (240, TExES Core Subjects EC-6 (391) Book or Certify Teacher).

  • It is important to take study breaks anywhere from 5 to 60 minutes to refresh your brain and body. Studies show that it helps students’ productivity, energy, and focus.

¡Les deseo lo mejor!

Aneth Marlene Jimenez

B.E.S.O. Student Representative


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Join us for a fantastic day of learning and networking with your fellow BESO affiliate members! We will spend the day learning how to better prepare to be the best bilingual teachers we can be and how to proudly and loudly advocate for our emergent bilingual students! BESO members can attend for FREE! 8 slots per affiliate are available!


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We are now offering virtual BTLPT prep sessions after school, domain by domain, so you can feel ready to ace the test in no time!

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Share your stories and ideas with us at

Lileana Ríos-Ledezma,

TABE Newsletter Chair