SIGMUND FREUD

Sravika Kayithi

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Sigmund Freud was a *psychodynamic psychologist* who was born on May 6, 1856 in Moravia. He was an Austrian neurologist at first who then started to develop his theories in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

THEORIES

Psychoanalysis

Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego.

Emphasized the influence of the unconscious mind.

Id - centered around primal impulses, pleasures, desires, unchecked urges and wish fulfillment.

Ego - concerned with the conscious, the rational, the moral and the self-aware aspect of the mind.

Superego - the censor for the id, which is also responsible for enforcing the moral codes of the ego.

Psychosexual development theories

Development through a child and their needs to get pleasure for their age.

Oral stage - Anal stage - Phallic stage - Latency stage - Genital stage.

Dream theories

Freud believed that we can chip through the dream's manifest content to reveal the underlying significance and its latent by utilizing the technique of "free association".

1. Displacement

This occurs when the desire for one thing or person is symbolized by something or someone else.

2. Projection

This happens when the dreamer propels their own desires and wants onto another person.

3. Symbolization

This is characterized when the dreamer's repressed urges or suppressed desires are acted out metaphorically.

4. Condensation

This is the process in which the dreamer hides their feelings or urges by contracting it or underplaying it into a brief dream image or event. Thus the meaning of this dream imagery may not be apparent or obvious.

5. Rationalization

This is regarded as the final stage of dreamwork. The dreaming mind organizes an incoherent dream into one that is more comprehensible and logical. This is also known as secondary revision.

Defense mechanisms and ego anxiety

Frued identified three types of anxiety:

  1. Neurotic anxiety is the unconscious worry that we will lose control of the id's urges, resulting in punishment for inappropriate behavior.

  2. Reality anxiety is fear of real-world events. The cause of this anxiety is usually easily identified. For example, a person might fear receiving a dog bite when they are near a menacing dog. The most common way of reducing this anxiety is to avoid the threatening object.

  3. Moral anxiety involves a fear of violating our own moral principles.

INFLUENCE/EXPERIMENTS

Influence

As a neurologist, Freud was studying the brain and with that, it lead to him developing theories out of thought. One from the other, many theories developed and such theories later inspired many more psychologists.

Experiments

Freud talked to patients and then analyzed their mind set based off of his theories, to prove his accuracy. Also, he conducted many experiments while studying neurology.

DO I AGREE?

I do support Freud's theories. I feel like they give me and others in general a basic understanding of a human personality. It may not apply to everyone in these ways, but it tells us how the mind works when not in our control and how dreams function. Also, it helps us deal with ourselves when faced with mental issues, and also help others.