Effective Reading & Writing Inst.

Kelley Regan & Sheri Berkeley

Presenter: Erika Chandler, Section B, Thursday February 2, 2016

Regan, K., & Berkeley, S. (2011). Effective Reading and Writing Instruction: A Focus on Modeling. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(276). Retrieved from http://isc.sagepub.com/content/47/5/276

Why Model?

Modeled teaching strategies are used to engage children in learning. This is a cognitive learning strategy to support student learning and enable students to work independently. The teacher should use conditional, procedural, and declarative knowledge when modeling to his/her students. Modeling in the classroom is the first step to strategic learning, then students can use self-talk while working independently.

The teacher thinks out loud when attempting to solve a problem.

Supporting students with learning disabilities.

Students with learning disabilities struggle to organize and recall information. Through modeling, teachers and students can support comprehension learning. This allows students to use kinesthetic learning and piece their learning to gather. Modeling reinforces learning for all students.

Three steps to specific, explicit, and flexible modeling.

1. Did I model when to use the strategy and why? It is important for the teacher to communicate with her students when and why to use a strategy. This eliminates doubts the students may have.

2. Did I explicitly model how to use all of the strategy steps? Teachers should scaffold instruction depending on the ability level of their students to reinforce learning. Once students are able to work independently and self talk through the steps they will not leave out an important part of the learning process.

3. Did I model how to be flexible in strategy selection and application? Teachers should draw students' attention to the importance of the strategy selected.


For modeling to be beneficial to students, teachers must spend an adequate amount of time on modeling. If the teacher does not set aside enough time to model to his/her students then the students will not catch on and be able to self-talk and work independently through these strategies. When students are not understanding, reteaching and more modeling is needed.


I believe modeling is a great strategy to use in the classroom, if the teacher is invested in it. The teacher must be willing to follow the three steps each and every time they engage in modeling. If the steps are followed all learners will be engaged in the learning and have a better cognitive understanding of their reading and writing. On the other hand, if the teacher is not invested in the strategy I believe it is ineffective and will not be useful in the classroom.

Would you invest yourself in the modeling strategy?

Do you believe there are more implications to modeling?

How would this work with english language learners?