Science CRCT Review Unit 4 & 5

By: River Ryland

Unit 4: Water in Earth’s Processes (Hydrology & Meteorology Domain—40%)

  • There to bulge, producing tides.The majority of the Earth's surface is covered with water.

  • Most of the water on the Earth is salt water. Only a small amount is fresh water, including water in rivers, many lakes, underground water, and in the form of ice.

  • The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns.

  • Water evaporation from the surface of the earth, rises and cools, condenses into rain or snow, and falls again to the surface.

  • The water, which is a solvent, falling on land collects in rivers and lakes, soil, and porous layers of rock, and much of it flows back into the ocean.

  • Salts have become concentrated in the sea (compared with freshwater) because the sun's heat causes the evaporation of water, leaving the salts behind.

  • Underneath the ocean, the Earth has plains, mountains, and valleys, which are often larger than those on dry land.

  • Ocean currents can be caused by factors such as wind, salinity, temperature, the Coriolis Effect, and gravitational pull.

  • Ocean currents flow in predictable patterns around the world.

  • The moon's gravitational pull and the spinning of the earth cause ocean wat

Unit 5: Weather & Climate (Hydrology & Meteorology Domain—40%)

  • The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns.

  • Heat energy carried by ocean currents has a strong influence on climate around the world.

  • The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the Earth's surface, including winds, ocean currents, and waves.

  • Waves transfer energy from one place to another. Waves in oceans and lakes are caused by wind blowing over the surface of the water.

  • Ocean currents influence the weather in coastal areas. Currents can be caused by wind, differences in salinity, differences in water temperatures caused by uneven heating of the Earth, the Coriolis Effect which is a consequence of the Earth's rotation, and the gravitational pull of celestial bodies (tidal currents).

  • Because the Earth turns daily on an axis that is tilted relative to the plane of the Earth's yearly orbit around the sun, sunlight falls more intensely on different parts of the Earth during the year. The difference in heating of the Earth's surface produces the planet's seasons and weather patterns.

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