Steps Involved in Fabric Production
- Plain weave- Simplest weave, Weft yarn is passed over then under each warp yarn. Ex: Basket weave
- Twill weave- weft yarn is passed over, under one, two, or three wrap yarns. Beginning one warp back on each new row. Very durable. Ex: denim
- Satin weave- produces a smooth, shiny-surfaced fabric. Passing the weft yarn over and under numerous warp yarns. Ex: Satin
- Other Weaves- Pile (corduroy, velvet), Dobby (dotted swiss, pique), Jacquard (brocade, damask), and Leno (fabrics with an open, lacy appearance)
- Weft knits- Made with only one yarn. Runs crosswise forming a horizontal row of interlocking loops. Ex: Jersey, ribbed knits, sweater knits
- Warp knits- Made with several yarns. Loops interlock n the lengthwise direction. Ex: tricot, raschel knits
Other ways to construct fabric
- Nonwoven- Fibers compacted together. Using moisture, heat, chemicals, friction, or pressure. Ex: quilt batting, garment interfacing, felt, and artificial suede
- Laces and nets- Knotting, twisting, or looping yarns. Ex: lace
- Braided fabrics- Interlacing three or more yarns. Forms a diagonal pattern down the length of the resulting cord. Ex: decorative trims, shoelaces
- Bonded fabric- permanently fastening together two layers of fabric by lamination. Ex: Skiwear or Wintercoats
- Quilted fabric- a layer of padding or batting. In between two layers of fabric. Held together by stitching. Ex: bedspreads, placemats, and underwear.
- Bleaching- Chemical process that remove color, impurities, or spots from fiber.
- Dyeing-A method of giving color to a fiber, yarn, fabric, or garment.
- Printing- The process of adding color, pattern, or design to the surface of fabrics
Mechanical - finishes that are applied mechanically. Affect size and appearance. Ex: glazing, embossing brushing/napping/cutting
Chemical- finishes that become part of the fabric through chemical reactions. Affect performance. Ex: flame retardant, stain resistant, waterproof, etc.