Inodonesia

By: Almira Rajwani 2nd Period

Intorduction to this amazing country!

Indonesia is a wonderful country, with many islands, more than 17,500 of them. Indonesia has an extremely diverse population, there are 300 different ethnic groups and speak more than 250 languages, so you can meet new people and learn many things. The major islands in Indonesia are Sumatra, Java, and Celebes. Indonesia shares 2 of it's other islands. Most of Borneo belongs to Indonesia, but Indonesia only controls the western half of New Guinea. Indonesia's climate is very tropical so the climate there is wonderful. The average temperature there is about 80 degrees which feels amazing! Indonesia has the worlds best Democracy, it is very cool to live in Indonesia and experience the way they run the country.The most famous arts of Indonesia include two types of traditional dancing; the dances of the old royal courts of Java and the dramatic folk dances of Bali. Both types of dancers wear elaborate costumes and heavy makeup or masks. If you come to Indonesia you can experience the fusion of cultures!

Indonesia-" Where exploring never ends"

Climate and Geography in Indonesia

Climate

Indonesia is very close to the equator. Because of this the climate here is tropical, so it's hot and humid. Indonesian climate is divided into two distinct seasons. There are dry seasons and wet seasons. Most of Indonesia has their rainy seasons from October through April, but places like Maluku have theirs from March to August. In the dy seasons it does rain, in fact mid-afternoon rains are affair. The tempreture in Indonesia stays constant most of the time; in rainy seasons the tempretures drop. The top of the highest mountains in Indonesia get snow all year long. If you come to Indonesia you won't be able to leave!

Geography

Indonesia has the world's largest archipelago extending 5,120 kilometers from east to west and 1,760 kilometers from north to south. It encompasses 13,667 to 18,000 from which only 6,000 of which are inhabited. There are five main islands Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya. The topography of Indonesia's islands varies but it consists mainly of coastal lowlands. Some of Indonesia's larger islands have mountains. The whole island of Indonesia consists of 400 volcanoes, of those a 100 are active (Indonesia is in the ring of fire). From these 100 volcanoes Java has 50 active ones Three fourth of Indonesia is covered with forests. Because of the location of Indonesia natural disasters, and earthquakes are common. Indonesia has many rivers, and they serve as transportation routes for specific islands. The rich flora in Indonesia includes many different varieties of tropical plant life in many forms; for example the Rafflesia arnoldii (the largest flower in the world), is only found in certain parts of Sumatra. As you can see if you start exploring Indonesia you will spend the rest of your life here, admiring the different geographical features!

People and Culture

People

Indonesia has 250 million people, they are the fourth most populous country in the world (after China, India and the United States). 120 million people live on the island of Java, making it, possibly, the most densely populated region on Earth. , Jakarta, Indonesia’s capital city, has a population of almost 14 million, and is the world’s ninth largest city. 85% of people in Indonesia are muslims.Christians,Protestant, and Catholic make up about 10%. Buhhdist make up about 4%. They speak about 583 languages and dialect. This comes from the mixture of diffrent cultures and ethnic groups.


Agriculture provides employment for a lot of people in Indonesia, so if you love farming Indonesia would be great for you. Traditional sports enjoyed by Indonesians include pencak silat, a form of martial arts; sepak takraw, a ball game involving a rattan ball that must be kept in the air using any part of the body except the hands; and boating. Indonesians are also fond of football (soccer) and are “fanatical” about badminton (which rarely fails to earn them Olympic gold). Kite flying is extremely popular amongst young children, whose kites can be seen in the dusk sky almost every evening during the dry season – so popular, in fact, that kites merit their own museum (the Kite Museum) in Jakarta . Indonesia has been affected with many cultures throught the centuries, the art in Indonesia is based off of this fusion of cultures. Indonesia is famous for wooden carvings, batik and textiles. Traditional cloth paintings can be seen in the temples and shrines in Bali. Hangings show scenes of stories set out in consecutive boxes, often with themes from the Sanskrit epics. In Indonesia you will never get tired of learning new things, and sightseeing. (http://www.languagestudiesindonesia.com/about_indonesia/)

Culture

The culture in Indonesia is an outcome of the interplay of old traditions, which is really cool. Indonesia art forms are greatly influenced by religons,and they ae very pretty. The famous dance dramas of Java and Bali are derived from Hindu mythology and often feature fragments from the Hindu epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharata. Indonesia is rich in handicrafts, in Indonesia art varies between medium, and art form. People are artistic by nature and express themselves on canvas, wood, metals, clay and stone. The Batick process of waxing and dyeing have been modified with new techniques, and most importantly, technology. 85% of people in Indonesia are muslim, 10% are Christian, Catholic, and Protestent, and 4% are buhhdist. They speak about 583 languages and dialect. This comes from the mixture of diffrent cultures and ethnic groups. The diverse influences, shaping the perspective of Indonesian people, and the cultural fusion, are noticable in Indonesian art forms. If you go to Indonesia you will get so caught up in the diffrent cultures, you will feel like a whole new, happy person.


The food in Indonesia is out of this world. Each dish has flavor, and spice; they are mouth-watering dishes. Indonesian dishes are usally eaten with spoons in the right hand, and forks in the left hand. In some places food is eaten with hands like, seafood, and in Sundaneese resturaunts. Indonesisia's cusine has been influnced by Chinise, Indian, and Western cultures. The most popular dishes in Indonesia are, Nasi Goreng (fried rice), Satay, Nasi Pandang, and soy based dishes, like tofu. A unique characteristic in Indonesian cooking is their Spicy Peanut Sauce, as a dressing or seasoning. You will be blown away by the flavor of these dishes.


The traditional clothing of Indonesian men and women is a colorful skirt called a sarong or a kain. A sarong is a long strip of cloth wrapped around the body. A kain is similar, but with the ends sewn together. Men wear a shirt with trousers, or a sarong. Women usually wear a long-sleeved blouse and a sarong or kain. The men might wear a special hat or cap, and the women wear a shawl over their head and shoulders; but they do not wear a veil over their face. In the cities, most people wear western or european style clothings, but some city people prefer the traditional clothing.


Government and Citizenship of Indonesia

Government

Indonesia is a rebublic, it's official name is The Rebublic of Indonesia. The government in Indonesia is based on the, 1945 Constitution. The government here has three branches; the Executive, Judicial, and Legeslative. The Executive Branch is headed by the president and vice-president. The president is the head of government, the chief of state, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president appoints the members of his cabinet, who are responsible for the Government's ministries. The Judicial Branch, is baisiclly the supreme court, they are incharge of final court of appeals, and oversees all lower courts. They are independent of the executive and legislative branches of government. The Legeslative branch, is based on the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), or Indonesia's parliament. The MPR is made up of two bodies, the People's Representative Council (DPR) and the Regional Representative Council (DPD). Together, these groups have the power to pass laws, amend the Constitution, conduct formal inquiries, oversee the state's budget, and dismiss the president and vice president in accordance with the Constitution. Indonesia has 33 provinces. The provinces are divided into districts and municipalities. These units are further divided into subdistricts and villages. In most provinces, the legislature elects a governor, who is approved by Indonesia's president. Some provinces directly elect their governor. Local assemblies elect the heads of similar administrative units. Rural villagers elect their own village officials. Indonesia is a very free country so if you come here you don't have to worry about not having any rights.

Citizenship

Elections in Indonesia have taken place since 1955. The voting age in Indonesia is 17 but anyone who has an ID card can vote. Kartu Tanda Penduduk (KTP)) People under 17 who are married can get a KTP. (Kartu Tanda Penduduk (KTP))

Indonesian legal system is based on Roman-Dutch law, custom, and Islamic law. Their are Four branches of judiciary, outlined in Basic Law on Judicial Power 1970: general, religious, military and administrative courts. General courts include District Courts of First Instance, High Courts of Appeal, and Supreme Court. Indonesia's system of education is under the resbonsibility of, Ministry of Education and Culture.

Education system in Indonesia is divided into three levels; Primary education, secondary education (junior and senior education) and Higher Education. Primary education is for 6 or 7 years old children to 12 years old, and the leaving exam will be, The Evaluation Balakar Tahap Akhir Nasional . Secondary education can be divided into two levels; junior secondary education for 13 to 15 years old teenagers, and seniors secondary school for 16 to 18 years old teenager.


Here is a list of some of the rights us Indonesians have....

Indonesian Citizens Rights:
- The right to employment and decent living: "Every citizen has the right to
employment and decent living for humanity "(Article 27 paragraph 2).
- The right to life and sustain life: "Every person has the right to live and to defend life and living." (Article 28A).
- The right to form a family and continue the descent through a legal marriage (Article 28B paragraph 1).
- The right to survival. "Every child has the right to live, to grow, and Growing"
- The right to develop themselves and through the fulfillment of their basic needs and is entitled to education, science and technology, art and culture for
improve the quality of life for the welfare of human life. (Article 28C Paragraph 1)
- Right to advance himself in the fight for their rights collectively to build the community,nation, and state. (Article 28C Paragraph 2).
- The right to recognition, security, protection, legal certainty and a fair and
equal treatment before the law. (Article 28D paragraph 1).
- The right to have a private property right to life, freedom from torture, freedom of thought and conscience, freedom of religion, freedom from enslavement,
right to recognition as a person before the law, and the right not to be prosecuted on the basis of a retroactive law is a human right that can not be reduced under any circumstances. (Article 28I Paragraph 1).
Indonesian citizen obligations:
- Obligation to obey the law and government. Article 27 paragraph (1) of the 1945 Constitution reads:
all citizens shall be equal before the law and the government
and obliged to uphold the law and the government, without exception.
- Obligation to respect human rights of others. Article 28J Paragraph 1 says:
Everyone is obliged to respect of human rights of others

- Article 27, paragraph (1), together with all citizens equal before the
law and government, are obliged to uphold the law and government. In subsection (2), taip every citizen has the right to employment and decent living for humanity.

http://imron-alifandi.blogspot.com/2012/10/rights-and-obligations-of-indonesia.html#sthash.v161VCRP.dpuf

Economy

Indonesia has a Mixed economy, we have privately owned firms and state-owned enterprises. The private sector accounts for most of the total national output. About two-fifths of Indonesians work in agriculture and fishing, but diversified manufacturing has become a mainstay of the economy. Service Industuries, have become increasingly valuable to Indonesia's economy. Today, service industries account for about two-fifths of both Indonesia's employment and its gross domestic product. Hotels, restaurants and stores benefit from the millions of tourists who visit Indonesia each year. Many of these visitors come from other Asian countries and Australia. Visitors flock to the island of Java to see its beautiful scenery and famous temples, and to Bali, which is renowned for its dancing and colorful festivals. Agriculture continues to be a major economic activity in Indonesia; it employs about two fifths of their workers. Indonesia is an important producer of oil and natural gas. The country also ranks as one of the world's largest exporters of natural gas.


Indonesia exports more then they import things. Japan is Indonesia's most important trading partner. Other major partners include Australia, China, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, and the United States. Indonesia is the worlds largest exporter of natural gas. Oil and gas account for about 20 percent of Indonesia's total export earnings. Wood products are the most important thing Indonesia exports after, patroleum and natural gas. Some other major exports are clothing, coffee, electronics, palm oil, rubber, textiles, and tobacco. Some things they import are Machinery and equipment, Chemicals, Fuels, Foodstuffs. Indonesia imports many things from Singapore; then comes China, Japan, Malaysia, USA, South Korea, and then Thailand.

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