Respiration Review

Test on wednesday


  • The process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid.
  • At the beginning of glycolysis, the cell uses up 2 molecules of ATP to start the reaction.
from slide show

The Krebs Cycle

  • the equation: acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD + FAD + ADP + HPO4-2 -------> 2 CO2 + CoA + 3 NADH+ + FADH+ + ATP
  • Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria and loses carbon dioxide to form acetyl-CoA, a two carbon molecule.
  • chemical energy is released and captured in the form of NADH, FADH2, and ATP.
  • During the Krebs Cycle pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracted reactions.
  • citric acid is broken down into a four molecule, more carbon dioxide is released.
from pg 226 biology book
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electron transport chain


  • The electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP.
  • High-energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed along the electron transport chain.
  • oxygen is essential for getting rid of low-energy electron and hydrogen ions, th wastes of cellular respiration
pg 228 biology book
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lactic acid fermentation

  • this type of fermentation regenerates NAD+
  • the pyruvic acid from Glycolysis is converted into lactic acid
  • the equation for lactic acid fermentation after glycolysis is:
Pyruvic acid + NADH --> lactic acid + NAD+

  • lactic acid is produced in our muscles during rapid exercise.

alcoholic fermentation

  • Produces carbon dioxide and alcohol
  • this process occurs in bread dough

images from

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